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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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Frohsdorf
Lanzenkirchen
Lanzenkirchen
is a market town in the district of Wiener Neustadt-Land in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Origin of the place names in Lanzenkirchen3 Sites of interest 4 ReferencesGeography[edit] Lanzenkirchen
Lanzenkirchen
is situated on the river Leitha, south of the city Wiener Neustadt, at the foot of the Rosaliengebirge mountain range. The municipality consists of the 5 Katastralgemeinden Lanzenkirchen, Frohsdorf, Haderswörth, Kleinwolkersdorf and Ofenbach. History[edit] Origin of the place names in Lanzenkirchen[edit] Lanzenkirchen: The name comes from a German settler who built a church. His name was Anzo or Lanzo. The name Lanzenkirchen
Lanzenkirchen
was first mentioned in 1130. Frohsdorf: The original name was Krottendorf because many toads (German: Kröten) were found in the water-rich area
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Gerrymandering
Gerrymandering
Gerrymandering
is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries. The resulting district is known as a gerrymander (/ˈdʒɛriˌmændər, ˈɡɛri-/), however that word is also a verb for the process.[1][2] The term gerrymandering has negative connotations. Two principal tactics are used in gerrymandering: "cracking" (i.e. diluting the voting power of the opposing party's supporters across many districts) and "packing" (concentrating the opposing party's voting power in one district to reduce their voting power in other districts).[3] In addition to its use achieving desired electoral results for a particular party, gerrymandering may be used to help or hinder a particular demographic, such as a political, ethnic, racial, linguistic, religious, or class group, such as in U.S
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French Constitution Of 1852
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.[1] These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United Kingdom) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties.[2] Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted
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Universal Male Suffrage
Universal manhood suffrage
Universal manhood suffrage
is a form of voting rights in which all adult males within a political system are allowed to vote, regardless of income, property, religion, race, or any other qualification. It is sometimes summarized by the slogan, "one man, one vote." History[edit]The establishment of universal male suffrage in France in 1848 was an important milestone in the history of democracy.Further information on dates by when countries granted universal manhood suffrage: Universal suffrage
Universal suffrage
§ Dates by country In 1789, Revolutionary France
Revolutionary France
adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and, although short-lived, the National Convention was elected by all men in 1792.[1] It was revoked by the Directory in 1795
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New Imperialism
In historical contexts, New Imperialism
Imperialism
characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[1] The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new technological advances and developments, making their territory bigger through conquest, and exploiting their resources. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers (and Japan) individually conquered almost all of Africa
Africa
and parts of Asia. The new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers, the economic desire for new resources and markets, and a "civilizing mission" ethos
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Corps Législatif
The Corps législatif
Corps législatif
was a part of the French legislature during the French Revolution
French Revolution
and beyond. It is also the generic French term used to refer to any legislative body. History[edit] The Constitution of the Year I foresaw the need for a corps législatif. During the period of the French Directory, beginning in 1795, the Corps législatif
Corps législatif
referred to the bicameral legislature of the Conseil des Cinq-Cents (Council of Five Hundred) and the Conseil des Anciens (Council of Ancients). Later, under Napoleon's Consulate, the Constitution of the Year VIII (1800) set up a Corps législatif
Corps législatif
as the law-making body of the three-part government apparatus (alongside the Tribunat and the Sénat Conservateur)
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Jupiter (mythology)
Jupiter, also known as Jove (Latin: Iūpiter [ˈjuːpɪtɛr] or Iuppiter [ˈjʊppɪtɛr],[1] gen. Iovis [ˈjɔwɪs]), is the god of the sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion
Ancient Roman religion
and mythology. Jupiter
Jupiter
was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice. Jupiter
Jupiter
is usually thought to have originated as a sky god. His identifying implement is the thunderbolt and his primary sacred animal is the eagle,[2] which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices[3] and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army (see Aquila)
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Legislative Body
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators
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Coup Of 18 Brumaire
The coup of 18 Brumaire
Brumaire
brought General Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte to power as First Consul
First Consul
of France, and, in the view of most historians, ended the French Revolution. This bloodless coup d'état overthrew the Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the French Republican Calendar.Contents1 Context 2 Events of 18 Brumaire, Year VIII 3 Events of 19 Brumaire 4 Aftermath4.1 Marx5 References 6 External linksContext[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Free Speech
Freedom
Freedom
of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.[2][3][4][5] The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom
Freedom
of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR) and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(ICCPR)
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Unitary State
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme. The central government may create (or abolish) administrative divisions (sub-national units).[1] Such units exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to regional or local governments by statute, the central government may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail (or expand) their powers. A large majority of the world's states (165 of the 193 UN member states) have a unitary system of government.[2] Unitary states stand in contrast with federations, also known as federal states. In federations, the sub-national governments share powers with the central government as equal actors through a written constitution, to which the consent of both is required to make amendments
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Algérie Française
French Algeria
Algeria
(French: Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterward;[1] unofficially Algérie française,[2][3] Arabic: الجزائر الفرنسية‎, Al-Jaza'ir al-Fransiyah) began in 1827[4] with the blockade of Algiers
Algiers
by the French navy and lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. From 1848 until independence, the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria
Algeria
was administered as an integral part of France. The vast arid interior of Algeria, like the rest of French North Africa, was never considered part of France. One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria
Algeria
became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants, known as colons and later, as pieds-noirs. However, indigenous Muslims
Muslims
remained a majority of the territory's population throughout its history
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Judaism
Judaism
Judaism
(originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah";[1][2] via Latin
Latin
and Greek) is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text.[3] It encompasses the religion, philosophy and culture of the Jewish people.[4] Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God
God
established with the Children of Israel.[5] Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
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Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a major branch of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th-century
16th-century
German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
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Calvinism
Calvinism
Calvinism
(also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin
John Calvin
and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ
Christ
in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things.[1][2] As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election
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