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Seaweed
Seaweed
Seaweed
or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.[1] The term includes some types of red, brown, and green macroalgae. Seaweed
Seaweed
offer excellent opportunities for its industrial exploitation as they could be a source of multiple compounds (i.e. polysaccharides, proteins and phenols) with applications as food [2][3] and animal feed,[3] pharmaceuticals [4] or fertilizersContents1 Taxonomy 2 Structure 3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Food 4.2 Herbalism 4.3 Filtration 4.4 Other uses4.4.1 Photo essay showing women in Zanzibar, Tanzania farming seaweed and making seaweed soap5 Health risks 6 Genera 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksTaxonomy[edit] "Seaweed" is a colloquial term and lacks a formal definition. A seaweed may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae
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Korea
Korea
Korea
(/kəˈriːə/) is a historical region in East Asia; since 1945, it has been divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea
Korea
(officially the "Republic of Korea"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea
Korea
is bordered by China
China
to the northwest and Russia
Russia
to the northeast. It is separated from Japan
Japan
to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan
Japan
(East Sea). Korea
Korea
emerged as a singular political entity in 676 AD, after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Unified Silla
Unified Silla
to the south and Balhae
Balhae
to the north
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Tide Pool
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore. Many of these pools exist as separate bodies of water only at low tide. Many tide pools are habitats of especially adaptable animals that have engaged the attention of naturalists and marine biologists, as well as philosophical essayists: John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
wrote in The Log from the Sea of Cortez, "It is advisable to look from the tide pool to the stars and then back to the tide pool."[1]Contents1 Zones from shallow to deep1.1 High tide zone 1.2 Low tide
Low tide
zone2 Life2.1 Fauna 2.2 Flora3 See also 4 References 5 External linksZones from shallow to deep[edit] Main article: Intertidal
Intertidal
zoneTide pools in Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz, California
from spray/splash zone to low tide zoneTidal pools exist in the intertidal zones
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Frond
A frond is a large, divided leaf.[1] In both common usage and botanical nomenclature, the leaves of ferns are referred to as fronds[2] and some botanists restrict the term to this group.[3] Other botanists allow the term frond to also apply to the large leaves of cycads and palms (Arecaceae).[4][5] "Frond" is commonly used to identify a large, compound leaf, but if the term is used botanically to refer to the leaves of ferns, it may be applied to smaller and undivided leaves. Fronds have particular terms describing their components. Like all leaves, fronds usually have a stalk connecting them to the main stem. In botany, this leaf stalk is generally called a petiole, but in regard to fronds specifically it is called a stipe, and it supports a flattened blade (which may be called a lamina), and the continuation of the stipe into this portion is called the rachis
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Spore
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.[1] Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula.[2] Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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Sorus
A sorus (pl. sori) is a cluster of sporangia (structures producing and containing spores) in ferns and fungi. This New Latin
New Latin
word is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σωρός (sōrós ‘stack, pile, heap’). In lichens and other fungi, the sorus is surrounded by an external layer. In some red algae it may take the form of a depression into the thallus. In ferns, these form a yellowish or brownish mass on the edge or underside of a fertile frond. In some species, they are protected during development by a scale or film of tissue called the indusium, which forms an umbrella-like cover. Sori occur on the sporophyte generation, the sporangia within producing haploid meiospores. As the sporongia mature, the indusium shrivels so that spore release is unimpeded. The sporangia then burst and release the spores. The shape, arrangement, and location of the sori are often valuable clues in the identification of fern taxa
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Miso Soup
Miso
Miso
soup (味噌汁, misoshiru) is a traditional Japanese soup consisting of a stock called "dashi" into which softened miso paste is mixed. Many ingredients are added depending on regional and seasonal recipes, and personal preference. Miso
Miso
soup is one of the two basic soup types of Japanese cuisine
Japanese cuisine
– the other one is Suimono
Suimono
(clear soup).Contents1 Miso
Miso
paste 2 Stock 3 Solid ingredients 4 Preparation and serving4.1 Instant miso soup 4.2 Wappani5 Health benefits 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Miso
Miso
paste[edit] Main article: Miso The choice of miso paste for the miso soup defines a great deal of its character and flavor
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Arboreal
Arboreal locomotion
Arboreal locomotion
is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some animals may scale trees only occasionally, but others are exclusively arboreal
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Cyanobacteria
As of 2014[update] the taxonomy was under revision[1][2]Chroococcales Chroococcidiopsidales Gloeobacterales Nostocales Oscillatoriales Pleurocapsales Spirulinales Synechococcales Incertae sedis†Gunflintia†OzarkcolleniaSynonymsMyxophyceae Wallroth, 1833 Phycochromaceae Rabenhorst, 1865 Cyanophyceae Sachs, 1874 Schizophyceae Cohn, 1879 Cyanophyta Steinecke, 1931 Oxyphotobacteria Gibbons & Murray, 1978 Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
/saɪˌænoʊbækˈtɪəriə/, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis,[4] and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.[5] The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός, translit. kyanós, lit. 'blue').[6][7] Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
(which are prokaryotes) used to be called "blue-green algae"
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Polyphyly
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor. The term is often applied to groups that share characteristics that appear to be similar but have not been inherited from common ancestors; these characteristics are known as homoplasies, and the development and phenomenon of homoplasies is known as convergent evolution. The arrangement of the members of a polyphyletic group is called a polyphyly. Alternatively, polyphyletic is simply used to describe a group whose members come from multiple ancestral sources, regardless of similarity of characteristics
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Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together".[1][2][3] In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants, most algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs
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Littoral Zone
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore. In coastal environments the littoral zone extends from the high water mark, which is rarely inundated, to shoreline areas that are permanently submerged. It always includes this intertidal zone and is often used to mean the same as the intertidal zone. However, the meaning of "littoral zone" can extend well beyond the intertidal zone. There is no single definition. What is regarded as the full extent of the littoral zone, and the way the littoral zone is divided into subregions, varies in different contexts (lakes and rivers have their own definitions). The use of the term also varies from one part of the world to another, and between different disciplines. For example, military commanders speak of the littoral in ways that are quite different from marine biologists. The adjacency of water gives a number of distinctive characteristics to littoral regions
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East Asia
East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history
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Philippines
Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng PilipinasFlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1] "For God, People, Nature, and Country"Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Chosen LandGreat SealDakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog) Great Seal of the PhilippinesCapital Manilaa 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967Largest city
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Ocean
An ocean (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. Okeanós, the sea of classical antiquity[1]) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.[2] On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World
World
Ocean
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