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Seal Of The United States Department Of Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology. Modern agronomy , plant breeding , agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers , and technological developments have in many cases sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and the health effects of the antibiotics , growth hormones , and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production . Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries
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Field (agriculture)
In agriculture, a field is an area of land, enclosed or otherwise, used for agricultural purposes such as cultivating crops or as a paddock or other enclosure for livestock. A field may also be an area left to lie fallow or as arable land. Many farms have a field border, usually composed of a strip of shrubs and vegetation, used to provide food and cover necessary for the survival of wildlife. It has been found that these borders may lead to an increased variety of animals and plants in the area, but also in some cases a decreased yield of crops.[1]Contents1 Language 2 Image gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesLanguage[edit] In Australian and New Zealand English, any agricultural field may be called a paddock. If stock are grazed there, the space may be called a run, e.g
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Záhorie
Coordinates : 48°33′N 17°05′E / 48.550°N 17.083°E / 48.550; 17.083 Skalica ZáHORIE (Hungarian : Erdőhát) is a region in western Slovakia between by the Little Carpathians to the east and the Morava River to the west. Although not an administrative region, it is one of the 21 official tourism regions in Slovakia. Záhorie
Záhorie
lies in the area of three administrative regions: Bratislava Region
Bratislava Region
( Malacky District plus Záhorská Bystrica in Bratislava
Bratislava
), Trnava Region
Trnava Region
( Senica and Skalica districts) and Trenčín Region (southern part of Myjava District ). The region also creates the borders between Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Austria
Austria
. A military district of the same name is located around Malacky. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Geography * 3 Climate and agriculture * 4 Population * 5 Environment and ecology * 6 Transportation * 7 Gallery * 8 References * 9 External links NAMEThe word "Záhorie" means "(The land) behind the mountains", referring to the Little Carpathians mountains that separate Záhorie from the rest of Slovakia. GEOGRAPHYIn the middle of the region is the Záhorská nížina , a plain between the towns of Senica and Malacky
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Slovakia
Coordinates : 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500 Slovak Republic _Slovenská republika_ (Slovak ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Nad Tatrou sa blýska " "Lightning Over the Tatras" Location of Slovakia
Slovakia
(dark green) – in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Bratislava
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Domestic Sheep
The SHEEP (_ Ovis aries_) is a quadrupedal , ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock . Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates . Although the name "sheep" applies to many species in the genus _ Ovis _, in everyday usage it almost always refers to _ Ovis aries_. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a _ewe_ (/juː/ ), an intact male as a _ram_ or occasionally a _tup_, a castrated male as a _wether_, and a younger sheep as a _lamb_. Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece , meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk . A sheep's wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is usually harvested by shearing . Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, and are also occasionally raised for pelts , as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science. Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, and has been fundamental to many civilizations
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Cow
CATTLE—colloquially COWS —are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates . They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae , are the most widespread species of the genus _ Bos _, and are most commonly classified collectively as _BOS TAURUS_. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal ), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products , and as draft animals (oxen or bullocks that pull carts , plows and other implements). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel . In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning . Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in southeast Turkey. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome . Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans * Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured * 8.4% White * 2.5% Asian RELIGION See _ Religion in South Africa _ DEMONYM South African GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Jacob Zuma • DEPUTY PRESIDENT Cyril Ramaphosa LEGISLATURE Parliament • UPPER HOUSE National Council • LOWER HOUSE National Assembly INDEPENDENCE FROM THE UNITED K
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History Of Agriculture
The HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin . Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC. From around 9,500 BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops —emmer wheat , einkorn wheat , hulled barley , peas , lentils , bitter vetch , chick peas , and flax —were cultivated in the Levant . Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC, followed by mung , soy and azuki beans. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 13,000 BC, followed by sheep between 11,000 and 9,000 BC. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan around 8,500 BC. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 7,000 BC. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 5,000 BC. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 8,000 and 5,000 BC, along with beans , coca , llamas , alpacas , and guinea pigs . Bananas were cultivated and hybridized in the same period in Papua New Guinea
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History Of Organic Farming
Traditional farming (of many particular kinds in different eras and places) was the original type of agriculture , and has been practiced for thousands of years. All traditional farming is now considered to be "organic farming " although at the time there were no known inorganic methods. For example, forest gardening , a fully organic food production system which dates from prehistoric times , is thought to be the world's oldest and most resilient agroecosystem . After the industrial revolution had introduced inorganic methods, most of which were not well developed and had serious side effects, an organic movement began in the 1940s as a reaction to agriculture's growing reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides . The history of this modern revival of organic farming dates back to the first half of the 20th century at a time when there was a growing reliance on these new synthetic, non-organic methods. CONTENTS * 1 Pre- World War II * 2 Post- World War II * 3 Twenty-first century * 4 See also * 5 References PRE-WORLD WAR IIThe first 40 years of the 20th century saw simultaneous advances in biochemistry and engineering that rapidly and profoundly changed farming. The introduction of the gasoline-powered internal combustion engine ushered in the era of the tractor and made possible hundreds of mechanized farm implements . Research in plant breeding led to the commercialization of hybrid seed
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Neolithic Revolution
The NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION or NEOLITHIC DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, sometimes called the AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making possible an increasingly larger population. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed. This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants. Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of various types of plants and animals evolved in separate locations worldwide, starting in the geological epoch of the Holocene around 12,500 years ago. It was the world's first historically verifiable revolution in agriculture. The Neolithic Revolution greatly narrowed the diversity of foods available, with a switch to agriculture which led to a downturn in human nutrition. The Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human pre-history into sedentary (non-nomadic ) societies based in built-up villages and towns. These societies radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation (with e.g. irrigation and deforestation ) which allowed extensive surplus food production
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Arab Agricultural Revolution
The ARAB AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION is a conjectured transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World . The Arab Agricultural Revolution has also variously been called the Medieval Green Revolution, the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, the Islamic Agricultural Revolution and the Islamic Green Revolution. The name was coined by the historian Andrew Watson in an influential 1974 paper. He listed eighteen crops that were widely diffused during the Islamic period, including four staple crops , namely durum wheat , Asiatic rice , sorghum , and cotton . He also argued that techniques such as irrigation were spread across the region at that time. The paper was not based on direct archaeological or scientific evidence, and its approach has been called old-fashioned and philological . Some scholars have disagreed with parts of Watson's proposal, arguing that the four staple crops were already widely disseminated before that period, and that Islamic irrigation built on rather than replacing the Roman irrigation network in Spain. Against this, the historian Paolo Squatriti, reviewing Watson's paper 40 years on, noted that it had proven useful to many different historical agendas, and had held up surprisingly well in the face of new findings in archaeology and archaeobotany
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British Agricultural Revolution
The BRITISH AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. This increase in the food supply contributed to the rapid growth of population in England and Wales, from 5.5 million in 1700 to over 9 million by 1801 though domestic production gave way increasingly to food imports in the nineteenth century as population more than tripled to over 32 million. The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour force, adding to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. However, historians continue to dispute when exactly such a "revolution" took place and of what it consisted. Rather than a single event, G.E. Mingay states that there were a "profusion of agricultural revolutions, one for two centuries before 1750, another emphasising the century after 1650, a third for the period 1750-1880, and a fourth for the middle decades of the nineteenth century". This has led more recent historians to argue that any general statements about "the Agricultural Revolution" are difficult to sustain
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Green Revolution
The GREEN REVOLUTION refers to a set of research and development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including: ...new, high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of cereals, especially dwarf wheats and rices, in association with chemical fertilizers and agro-chemicals , and with controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation ) and new methods of cultivation, including mechanization. All of these together were seen as a 'package of practices' to supersede 'traditional' technology and to be adopted as a whole. The initiatives, led by Norman Borlaug , the "Father of the Green Revolution", who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970, credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds , synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers
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Farm
A FARM is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops ; it is the basic facility in food production. The name is used for specialised units such as arable farms , vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy , pig and poultry farms , and land used for the production of natural fibres , biofuel and other commodities . It includes ranches , feedlots , orchards , plantations and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, and includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms , both of which can operate on land or sea. Farming originated independently in different parts of the world, as hunter gatherer societies transitioned to food production rather than, food capture. It may have started about 12,000 years ago with the domestication of livestock in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, soon to be followed by the cultivation of crops. Modern units tend to specialise in the crops or livestock best suited to the region, with their finished products being sold for the retail market or for further processing, with farm products being traded around the world. Modern farms in developed countries are highly mechanized
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Animal Husbandry
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat , fibre , milk , eggs , or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding , and the raising of livestock . Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution w