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Seal Of The United States Department Of Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology
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Aquaculture
AQUACULTURE (less commonly spelled AQUICULTURE ), also known as AQUAFARMING, is the farming of fish , crustaceans , molluscs , aquatic plants, algae , and other aquatic organisms. Aquaculture
Aquaculture
involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing , which is the harvesting of wild fish . Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) , aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc
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Slash-and-burn
SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE, or FIRE–FALLOW CULTIVATION, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden. (Preparing fields by deforestation is called assarting .) In subsistence agriculture , slash-and-burn typically uses little technology. It is often applied in shifting cultivation agriculture (such as in the Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest
) and in transhumance livestock herding. Slash-and-burn
Slash-and-burn
is used by 200–500 million people worldwide. In 2004 it was estimated that in Brazil
Brazil
alone, 500,000 small farmers each cleared an average of one hectare (2.47105 acres) of forest per year. The technique is not scalable or sustainable for large human populations. Methods such as Inga alley farming have been proposed as alternatives which would cause less environmental degradation
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Aquaponics
AQUAPONICS (/ˈækwəˈpɒnᵻks/ ) refers to any system that combines conventional aquaculture (raising aquatic animals such as snails, fish , crayfish or prawns in tanks) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) in a symbiotic environment. In normal aquaculture, excretions from the animals being raised can accumulate in the water, increasing toxicity . In an aquaponic system, water from an aquaculture system is fed to a hydroponic system where the by-products are broken down by nitrifying bacteria initially into nitrites and subsequently into nitrates , which are utilized by the plants as nutrients , and the water is then recirculated back to the aquaculture system. As existing hydroponic and aquaculture farming techniques form the basis for all aquaponics systems, the size, complexity, and types of foods grown in an aquaponics system can vary as much as any system found in either distinct farming discipline
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Hydroponics
HYDROPONICS is a subset of hydroculture , the method of growing plants without soil , using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent. Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solution, or the roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel . The nutrients in hydroponics can come from an array of different sources; these can include but are not limited to byproduct from fish waste, duck manure, or normal nutrients
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Agribusiness
AGRIBUSINESS is the business of agricultural production. The term was coined in 1957 by Goldberg and Davis. It includes agrichemicals , breeding , crop production (farming and contract farming ), distribution, farm machinery , processing , and seed supply, as well as marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness system. Within the agriculture industry , "agribusiness" is used simply as a portmanteau of agriculture and business, referring to the range of activities and disciplines encompassed by modern food production. There are academic degrees in and departments of agribusiness, agribusiness trade associations , agribusiness publications , and so forth, worldwide
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Sharecropping
SHARECROPPING is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Sharecropping
Sharecropping
has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used a form of the system. Some are governed by tradition, and others by law. Legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, the French métayage , the Spanish mediero, or the Islamic system of muqasat, occur widely
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Ranch
A RANCH is an area of land , including various structures, given primarily to the practice of RANCHING, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool. The word most often applies to livestock-raising operations in Mexico
Mexico
, the Western United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
, though there are ranches in other areas. People who own or operate a ranch are called RANCHERS, CATTLEMEN, or STOCKGROWERS. Ranching is also a method used to raise less common livestock such as elk , American bison
American bison
or even ostrich , emu , and alpaca . Ranches generally consist of large areas, but may be of nearly any size. In the western United States, many ranches are a combination of privately owned land supplemented by grazing leases on land under the control of the federal Bureau of Land Management
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Intensive Crop Farming
INTENSIVE CROP FARMING is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of crops . Intensive crop farming's methods include innovation in agricultural machinery , farming methods, genetic engineering technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, patent protection of genetic information, and global trade . These methods are widespread in developed nations . The practice of industrial agriculture is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances. Innovations in agriculture beginning in the late 19th century generally parallel developments in mass production in other industries that characterized the latter part of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution

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Natural Farming
NATURAL FARMING is an ecological farming approach established by Masanobu Fukuoka
Masanobu Fukuoka
(1913–2008), a Japanese farmer and philosopher, introduced in his 1975 book The One-Straw Revolution . Fukuoka described his way of farming as 自然農法 (shizen nōhō) in Japanese. It is also referred to as "the Fukuoka Method", "the natural way of farming" or "do-nothing farming". The title refers not to lack of effort, but to the avoidance of manufactured inputs and equipment. Natural farming
Natural farming
is related to fertility farming, organic farming , sustainable agriculture , agroecology , agroforestry , ecoagriculture and permaculture , but should be distinguished from biodynamic agriculture . The system works along with the natural biodiversity of each farmed area, encouraging the complexity of living organisms—both plant and animal—that shape each particular ecosystem to thrive along with food plants
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Orchard
An ORCHARD is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production . Orchards comprise fruit - or nut -producing trees which are generally grown for commercial production. Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens , where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose. A fruit garden is generally synonymous with an orchard, although it is set on a smaller non-commercial scale and may emphasize berry shrubs in preference to fruit trees . Most temperate -zone orchards are laid out in a regular grid, with a grazed or mown grass or bare soil base that makes maintenance and fruit gathering easy. Orchards are sometimes concentrated near bodies of water, where climatic extremes are moderated and blossom time is retarded until frost danger is past
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Organic Farming
ORGANIC FARMING is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming
Organic farming
continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost, manure , green manure , and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting . Biological pest control , mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances. For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited
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Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural
Agricultural
engineering in forestry CONTENTS * 1 Specialties * 2 History * 3 Agricultural
Agricultural
engineers * 4 Academic programs in agricultural and biosystems engineering * 4.1 America *
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Agricultural Science
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture . (Veterinary science , but not animal science , is often excluded from the definition.) CONTENTS* 1 Agriculture, agricultural science, and agronomy * 1.1 Agricultural biotechnology * 2 Fertilizer
Fertilizer
* 3 A local science * 4 History of agricultural science * 5 Prominent agricultural scientists * 6 Agricultural science
Agricultural science
and agriculture crisis * 7 Fields or related disciplines * 8 See also * 9 Further reading * 10 References * 11 External links AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, AND AGRONOMYThe three terms are often confused
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Mechanised Agriculture
MECHANISED AGRICULTURE is the process of using agricultural machinery to mechanise the work of agriculture , greatly increasing farm worker productivity . In modern times, powered machinery has replaced many farm jobs formerly carried out by manual labour or by working animals such as oxen , horses and mules . The entire history of agriculture contains many examples of the use of tools, such as the hoe and the plough . But the ongoing integration of machines since the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
has allowed farming to become much less labour-intensive . Current mechanised agriculture includes the use of tractors , trucks , combine harvesters , countless types of farm implements , aeroplanes and helicopters (for aerial application ), and other vehicles. Precision agriculture
Precision agriculture
even uses computers in conjunction with satellite imagery and satellite navigation (GPS guidance) to increase yields
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Livestock
LIVESTOCK are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food , fiber , and labor . The term is often used to refer solely to those raised for food, and sometimes only farmed ruminants , such as cattle and goats . In recent years, some organizations have also raised livestock to promote the survival of rare breeds . The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of these animals, known as animal husbandry , is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal
Animal
husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods. Originally, livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming , sometimes referred to as "factory farming"
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