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Sea Level Rise
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans. Sea level rise is usually attributed to global climate change by thermal expansion of the water in the oceans and by melting of ice sheets and glaciers on land.[3] The melting of floating ice shelves and icebergs at sea would raise sea levels only by about 4 cm (1.6 in).[4] Sea level
Sea level
rise at specific locations may be more or less than the global average. Local factors might include tectonic effects, subsidence of the land, tides, currents, storms, etc.[5] Sea level rise is expected to continue for centuries
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Polar Ice Cap
A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.[1] There are no requirements with respect to size or composition for a body of ice to be termed a polar ice cap, nor any geological requirement for it to be over land; only that it must be a body of solid phase matter in the polar region. This causes the term "polar ice cap" to be something of a misnomer, as the term ice cap itself is applied more narrowly to bodies that are over land, and cover less than 50,000 km²: larger bodies are referred to as ice sheets. The composition of the ice will vary
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Marine Ecosystem
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. Examples include salt marshes, intertidal zones, estuaries, lagoons, mangroves, coral reefs, the deep sea, and the sea floor. They can be contrasted with freshwater ecosystems, which have a lower salt content. Marine waters cover two-thirds of the surface of the Earth. Such places are considered ecosystems because the plant life supports the animal life and vice versa. See food chains. Marine ecosystems are essential for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. According to the World Resource Center, coastal habitats account for about one-third of marine biological productivity. Estuarine
Estuarine
ecosystems, such as salt marshes, seagrass meadows and mangrove forests, are among the most productive ecosystems on the planet
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Patagonian Ice Sheet
The Patagonian Ice
Ice
Sheet was a large elongated and narrow ice sheet centered in the southern Andes that existed during the Llanquihue glaciation. The ice sheet covered all of Chile
Chile
south of Puerto Montt plus the western fringes of Argentine Patagonia. Overview[edit] The ice sheet extended beyond the crest of the Andes into Argentina, but because of the dryness of the climate it did not reach beyond present-day lakes such as the Yagagtoo, Musters, and Colhue Huapi. At its peak (about 18,000-17,500 years ago), the Patagonian Ice
Ice
Sheet covered about 480,000 km² of land with an estimated ice-volume of more than 500,000 km³,[1] of which about 4% remains glaciated today in two separated portions known as the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice
Ice
Fields
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Barents–Kara Ice Sheet
The Barents–Kara Ice Sheet was an ice sheet which existed during the Weichselian Glaciation. It is named after the seas it was centred upon: Barents Sea
Barents Sea
and Kara Sea. During the periods 90–80 ka and 60–50 ka, the produced ice-damming resulted in the creation of lakes and a significant rerouting of drainage in northern Eurasia, including the major rivers Yenisei, Ob, Pechora and Mezen that now flow northwards.[1][2] References[edit]^ Jan Mangerud; Martin Jakobsson; Helena Alexanderson; Valery Astakhov; Garry K. C. Clarke; Mona Henriksen; Christian Hjort; Gerhard Krinner; Juha-Pekka Lunkka; Per Möller; Andrew Murray; Olga Nikolskaya; Matti Saarnisto; John Inge Svendsen (2004). "Ice-dammed lakes and rerouting of the drainage of northern Eurasia
Eurasia
during the Last Glaciation" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews. 23 (11–13): 1313–1332
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Laurentide Ice Sheet
The Laurentide Ice Sheet
Laurentide Ice Sheet
was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada
Canada
and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary
Quaternary
glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.[1] The last advance covered most of northern North America between c. 95,000 and c. 20,000 years before the present day, and among other geomorphological effects, gouged out the five Great Lakes and the hosts of smaller lakes of the Canadian shield
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Meltwater Pulse 1B
Meltwater
Meltwater
pulse 1B (MWP1b) is the name used by Quaternary
Quaternary
geologists, paleoclimatologists, and oceanographers for a period of either rapid or just accelerated post-glacial sea level rise that occurred at the beginning of the Holocene
Holocene
and after the end of the Younger Dryas.[1] Meltwater
Meltwater
pulse 1B is also known as catastrophic rise event 2 (CRE2) in the Caribbean Sea.[2] Other named, postglacial meltwater pulses are known most commonly as meltwater pulse 1A0 (meltwaterpulse19ka), meltwater pulse 1A, meltwater pulse 1C, meltwater pulse 1D, and meltwater pulse 2
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Geological Timescale
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history
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Past Sea Level
Global or eustatic sea level has fluctuated significantly over the Earth's history. The main factors affecting sea level are the amount and volume of available water and the shape and volume of the ocean basins. The primary influences on water volume are the temperature of the seawater, which affects density, and the amounts of water retained in other reservoirs like rivers, aquifers, lakes, glaciers, polar ice caps and sea ice. Over geological timescales, changes in the shape of the oceanic basins and in land/sea distribution affect sea level
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Younger Dryas
The Younger Dryas
Younger Dryas
(c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
started receding around 20,000 BP. It is named after an indicator genus, the alpine-tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, as its leaves are occasionally abundant in the Late Glacial, often minerogenic-rich, like the lake sediments of Scandinavian lakes. Physical evidence of a sharp decline in temperature over most of the Northern Hemisphere, discovered by geological research, has been the key physical evidence found for the Younger Dryas. This temperature change occurred at the end of what the earth sciences refer to as the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch and immediately before the current, warmer Holocene epoch
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Meltwater
Meltwater
Meltwater
is water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice, tabular icebergs and ice shelves over oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reducing. Meltwater
Meltwater
can be produced during volcanic eruptions, in a similar way in which the more dangerous lahars form. When meltwater pools on the surface rather than flowing, it forms melt ponds. As the weather gets colder meltwater will often re-freeze. Meltwater
Meltwater
can collect or melt under the ice's surface. These pools of water, known as subglacial lakes can form due to geothermal heat and friction.Contents1 Water source 2 Glacial meltwater 3 Rapid changes3.1 Global warming4 See also4.1 In the media5 References 6 External linksWater source[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Caesarea
Caesarea
Caesarea
(Hebrew: קֵיסָרְיָה‬, Kaysariya or Qesarya; Arabic: قيسارية‎, Qaysaria; Greek: Καισάρεια; /ˌsɛzəˈriːə, ˌsɛsəˈriːə, ˌsiːzəˈriːə/)[2] is a town in north-central Israel. Located midway between Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Haifa
Haifa
on the coastal plain near the city of Hadera, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hof HaCarmel Regional Council. With a population of 4,970,[1] it is the only Israeli locality managed by a private organization, the Caesarea
Caesarea
Development Corporation,[3] and also one of the most populous localities not recognized as a local council. The town was built by Herod the Great
Herod the Great
about 25–13 BCE as the port city Caesarea
Caesarea
Maritima
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Piscina
A piscina is a shallow basin placed near the altar of a church, or else in the vestry or sacristy, used for washing the communion vessels. The sacrarium is the drain itself. Anglicans usually refer to the basin, calling it a piscina. Roman Catholics usually refer to the drain, and by extension, the basin, as the sacrarium. They are often made of stone and fitted with a drain, and are in some cases used to dispose of materials used in the sacraments and water from liturgical ablutions. They are found in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, and a similar vessel is used in Eastern Orthodox churches.Contents1 History 2 Usage 3 Eastern Christianity 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The piscina is a Latin
Latin
word originally applied to a fish-pond, and later used for natural or artificial pools for bathing, and also for a water tank or reservoir
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Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
(CO2) is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere. It is an integral part of the carbon cycle, a biogeochemical cycle in which carbon is exchanged between the Earth's oceans, soil, rocks and the biosphere. Plants
Plants
and other photoautotrophs use solar energy to produce carbohydrate from atmospheric carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis. Almost all other organisms depend on carbohydrate derived from photosynthesis as their primary source of energy and carbon compounds
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Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
(GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). The current director is Dr. Venkatachalam Ramaswamy. It is one of seven NOAA Research Laboratories (RLs).[1] GFDL is engaged in comprehensive long lead-time research to expand the scientific understanding of the physical processes that govern the behavior of the atmosphere and the oceans as complex fluid systems. These systems can then be modeled mathematically and their phenomenology can be studied by computer simulation methods. GFDL's accomplishments include the development of the first climate models to study global warming, the first comprehensive ocean prediction codes, and the first dynamical models with significant skill in hurricane track and intensity predictions
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Global Climate Model
A general circulation model (GCM) is a type of climate model. It employs a mathematical model of the general circulation of a planetary atmosphere or ocean. It uses the Navier–Stokes equations
Navier–Stokes equations
on a rotating sphere with thermodynamic terms for various energy sources (radiation, latent heat)
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