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Scientific Theory
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition *
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Organic Chemistry
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials , i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms . Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties , and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity , with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms
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Nuclear Chemistry
NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity , nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation , and nuclear properties. It is the chemistry of radioactive elements such as the actinides , radium and radon together with the chemistry associated with equipment (such as nuclear reactors ) which are designed to perform nuclear processes. This includes the corrosion of surfaces and the behavior under conditions of both normal and abnormal operation (such as during an accident ). An important area is the behavior of objects and materials after being placed into a nuclear waste storage or disposal site. It includes the study of the chemical effects resulting from the absorption of radiation within living animals, plants, and other materials
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Physical Chemistry
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY is the study of macroscopic , atomic , subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion , energy , force , time , thermodynamics , quantum chemistry , statistical mechanics , analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium . Physical chemistry, in contrast to chemical physics , is predominantly (but not always) a macroscopic or supra-molecular science, as the majority of the principles on which it was founded relate to the bulk rather than the molecular/atomic structure alone (for example, chemical equilibrium and colloids )
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Solid-state Chemistry
SOLID-STATE CHEMISTRY, also sometimes referred to as MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids. It therefore has a strong overlap with solid-state physics , mineralogy , crystallography , ceramics , metallurgy , thermodynamics , materials science and electronics with a focus on the synthesis of novel materials and their characterization. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Synthetic methods * 2.1 Oven techniques * 2.1.1 Melt methods * 2.1.2 Solution methods * 2.1.3 Gas reactions * 2.2 Air and moisture sensitive materials * 3 Characterization * 3.1 New phases, phase diagrams, structures * 3.2 Further characterization * 3.2.1 Optical properties * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links HISTORYBecause of its direct relevance to products of commerce, solid state inorganic chemistry has been strongly driven by technology
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Supramolecular Chemistry
SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY is the domain of chemistry beyond that of molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. The forces responsible for the spatial organization may vary from weak (intermolecular forces , electrostatic or hydrogen bonding ) to strong (covalent bonding ), provided that the degree of electronic coupling between the molecular component remains small with respect to relevant energy parameters of the component. While traditional chemistry focuses on the covalent bond , supramolecular chemistry examines the weaker and reversible noncovalent interactions between molecules. These forces include hydrogen bonding, metal coordination , hydrophobic forces , van der Waals forces , pi-pi interactions and electrostatic effects
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Inorganic Chemistry
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry . The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry . It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis , materials science , pigments , surfactants , coatings , medications , fuels , and agriculture
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Environmental Chemistry
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. It should not be confused with green chemistry , which seeks to reduce potential pollution at its source. It can be defined as the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air , soil , and water environments; and the effect of human activity and biological activity on these. Environmental chemistry
Environmental chemistry
is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric , aquatic and soil chemistry , as well as heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to environmental and other areas of science. Environmental chemistry
Environmental chemistry
is the study of chemical processes occurring in the environment which are impacted by humankind's activities
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Outline Of Physical Science
Physical science
Physical science
is a branch of natural science that studies non-living or living systems, in contrast to life science . It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences". However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry such as organic chemistry
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Chemistry
CHEMISTRY is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter . Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms , how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds , the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances. Chemistry
Chemistry
is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences , including physics , geology and biology . For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics . The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy , which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world
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Acid–base Reaction
An ACID–BASE REACTION is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base . Several theoretical frameworks provide alternative conceptions of the reaction mechanisms and their application in solving related problems; these are called the acid–base theories, for example, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory
Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory
. Their importance becomes apparent in analyzing acid–base reactions for gaseous or liquid species, or when acid or base character may be somewhat less apparent. The first of these concepts was provided by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
, around 1776
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Analytical Chemistry
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate , identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes . Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods . Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation , extraction , and distillation . Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography , electrophoresis or field flow fractionation
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Green Chemistry
GREEN CHEMISTRY, also called SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. Whereas environmental chemistry focuses on the effects of polluting chemicals on nature, green chemistry focuses on technological approaches to preventing pollution and reducing consumption of nonrenewable resources. The overarching goals of green chemistry—namely, more resource-efficient and inherently safer design of molecules, materials, products, and processes—can be pursued in a wide range of contexts
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Theoretical Chemistry
THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etс. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Branches of theoretical chemistry * 3 Closely related disciplines * 4 See also * 5 Bibliography OVERVIEW Theoretical chemistry unites principles and concepts common to all branches of chemistry. Within the framework of theoretical chemistry, there is a systematization of chemical laws, principles and rules, their refinement and detailing, the construction of a hierarchy. The central place in theoretical chemistry is occupied by the doctrine of the interconnection of the structure and properties of molecular systems
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Photochemistry
PHOTOCHEMISTRY is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light. Generally, this term is used to describe a chemical reaction caused by absorption of ultraviolet (wavelength from 100 to 400 nm ), visible light (400 – 750 nm) or infrared radiation (750 – 2500 nm). In nature, photochemistry is of immense importance as it is the basis of photosynthesis, vision, and the formation of vitamin D with sunlight. Photochemical reactions proceed differently than temperature-driven reactions. Photochemical paths access high energy intermediates that cannot be generated thermally, thereby overcoming large activation barriers in a short period of time, and allowing reactions otherwise inaccessible by thermal processes. Photochemistry is also destructive, as illustrated by the photodegradation of plastics
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