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Scientific Theory Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t ePart of a series onScienceFormalFormal logic MathematicsMathematical statistics Theoretical computer scienceGame theory Decision theoryInformation theory Systems theory Control theoryPhysicalPhysicsClassical Modern AppliedTheoretical Experimental ComputationalMechanics(classical analytical continuum fluid solid)Electromagnetism ThermodynamicsMolecular Atomic Nuclear ParticleCondensed matter PlasmaQuantum mechanics (introduction) Quantum field theory Special [...More...]  "Scientific Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Particle Physics Particle Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word "particle" can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), "particle physics" usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g [...More...]  "Particle Physics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Computational Physics Numerical analysis · Simulation Data analysis · VisualizationPotentials Morse/Longrange potential · LennardJones potential · Yukawa potential · Morse potentialFluid dynamics Finite difference · Finite volume Finite element · Boundary element Lattice Boltzmann · Riemann solver Dissipative particle dynamics Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Turbulence modelsMonte Carlo methods Integration · Gibbs sampling · Metropolis algorithmParticle Nbody · Particleincell Molecular dynamicsScientists Godunov · Ulam · von Neumann · Galerkin · Lorenz · Wilsonv t e Computational physics [...More...]  "Computational Physics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Information Theory Information Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information. It was originally proposed by Claude E. Shannon in 1948 to find fundamental limits on signal processing and communication operations such as data compression, in a landmark paper entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPEGs), and channel coding (e.g. for digital subscriber line (DSL)). Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. A key measure in information theory is "entropy" [...More...]  "Information Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Systems Theory Systems Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts that is either natural or manmade. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose or nature and expressed in its functioning. In terms of its effects, a system can be more than the sum of its parts if it expresses synergy or emergent behavior. Changing one part of the system usually affects other parts and the whole system, with predictable patterns of behavior. For systems that are selflearning and selfadapting, the positive growth and adaptation depend upon how well the system is adjusted with its environment. Some systems function mainly to support other systems by aiding in the maintenance of the other system to prevent failure [...More...]  "Systems Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Control Theory Control theory Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines. The objective is to develop a control model for controlling such systems using a control action in an optimum manner without delay or overshoot and ensuring control stability. To do this, a controller with the requisite corrective behaviour is required. This controller monitors the controlled process variable (PV), and compares it with the reference or set point (SP). The difference between actual and desired value of the process variable, called the error signal, or SPPV error, is applied as feedback to generate a control action to bring the controlled process variable to the same value as the set point. Other aspects which are also studied are controllability and observability [...More...]  "Control Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Outline Of Physical Science Physical science Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies nonliving systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences" [...More...]  "Outline Of Physical Science" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Physics Physics Physics (from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics [...More...]  "Physics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Classical Physics Classical physics Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be "modern," and its introduction represented a major paradigm shift, then the previous theories, or new theories based on the older paradigm, will often be referred to as belonging to the realm of "classical" physics.[citation needed] As such, the definition of a classical theory depends on context. Classical physical concepts are often used when modern theories are unnecessarily complex for a particular situation [...More...]  "Classical Physics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Modern Physics Modern physics Modern physics is the postNewtonian conception of physics. It implies that classical descriptions of phenomena are lacking, and that an accurate, "modern", description of nature requires theories to incorporate elements of quantum mechanics or Einsteinian relativity, or both. In general, the term is used to refer to any branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onwards, or branches greatly influenced by early 20th century physics. Small velocities and large distances is usually the realm of classical physics. Modern physics, however, often involves extreme conditions: quantum effects typically involve distances comparable to atoms (roughly 10−9 m), while relativistic effects typically involve velocities comparable to the speed of light (roughly 108 m/s) [...More...]  "Modern Physics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Applied Physics Applied physics Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is usually considered as a bridge or a connection between physics and engineering. "Applied" is distinguished from "pure" by a subtle combination of factors such as the motivation and attitude of researchers and the nature of the relationship to the technology or science that may be affected by the work. Applied Physics Physics is rooted in the fundamental truths and basic concepts of the physical sciences but is concerned with the utilization of scientific principles in practical devices and systems, and in the application of physics in other areas of science.[1] It usually differs from engineering in that an applied physicist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is using physics or conducting physics research with the aim of developing new technologies or solving an engineering problem [...More...]  "Applied Physics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Experimental Physics Experimental physics Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and subdisciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments. Methods vary from discipline to discipline, from simple experiments and observations, such as the Cavendish experiment, to more complicated ones, such as the Large Hadron Hadron Collider.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Current experiments 4 Method 5 Famous experiments 6 Experimental techniques 7 Prominent experimental physicists 8 Timelines 9 See also 10 References 11 Further readingOverview[edit] Experimental physics Experimental physics regroups all the disciplines of physics that are concerned with data acquisition, data–acquisition methods, and the detailed conceptualization (beyond simple thought experiments) and realization of laboratory experiments [...More...]  "Experimental Physics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Mechanics Mechanics Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science which is concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. The scientific discipline has its origins in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece with the writings of Aristotle Aristotle and Archimedes[1][2][3] (see History of classical mechanics History of classical mechanics and Timeline of classical mechanics). During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics. It is a branch of classical physics that deals with particles that are either at rest or are moving with velocities significantly less than the speed of light [...More...]  "Mechanics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Game Theory Game theory Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decisionmakers". Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as in logic and computer science.[1] Originally, it addressed zerosum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixedstrategy equilibria in twoperson zerosum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixedpoint theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics [...More...]  "Game Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Classical Mechanics Classical mechanics Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies. If the present state of an object is known it is possible to predict by the laws of classical mechanics how it will move in the future (determinism) and how it has moved in the past (reversibility) The earliest development of classical mechanics is often referred to as Newtonian mechanics. It consists of the physical concepts employed by and the mathematical methods invented by Isaac Newton Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others in the 17th century to describe the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. Later, more abstract methods were developed, leading to the reformulations of classical mechanics known as Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics [...More...]  "Classical Mechanics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Analytical Mechanics In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, analytical mechanics, or theoretical mechanics is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics. It was developed by many scientists and mathematicians during the 18th century and onward, after Newtonian mechanics. Since Newtonian mechanics Newtonian mechanics considers vector quantities of motion, particularly accelerations, momenta, forces, of the constituents of the system, an alternative name for the mechanics governed by Newton's laws Newton's laws and Euler's laws is vectorial mechanics. By contrast, analytical mechanics uses scalar properties of motion representing the system as a whole—usually its total kinetic energy and potential energy—not Newton's vectorial forces of individual particles.[1] A scalar is a quantity, whereas a vector is represented by quantity and direction [...More...]  "Analytical Mechanics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 