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Scarabaeoidea
See text. Scarabaeoidea
Scarabaeoidea
is a superfamily of beetles, the only subgroup of the infraorder Scarabaeiformia
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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François Louis De La Porte, Comte De Castelnau
François Louis Nompar de Caumont La Force, comte de Castelnau (25 December 1810[1] – 4 February 1880) was a French naturalist, known also as François Laporte or Francis de Castelnau.Contents1 Life 2 Hoax
Hoax
Australian fish 3 Legacy 4 Works 5 Notes 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Born in London, Castelnau studied natural history in Paris. From 1837 to 1841 he led a scientific expedition to Canada, where he studied the fauna of the Canadian lakes and the political systems of Upper and Lower Canada
Lower Canada
(roughly corresponding to the modern provinces of Ontario and Quebec) and of the United States.[2] Castelnau, a French savant, was sent by Louis Philippe, in 1843, with two botanists and a taxidermist, on an expedition to cross South America from Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
to Lima, following the watershed between the Amazon and La Plata river systems, and thence to Pará
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Étienne Mulsant
Martial Étienne Mulsant
Étienne Mulsant
(2 March 1797, Marnand, Rhône
Marnand, Rhône
– 4 November 1880) was a French entomologist and ornithologist. Biography[edit] Initially employed in commerce, Mulsant wrote writes Lettres à Julie sur l'entomologie, suivies d'une description méthodique de la plus grande partie des insectes de France, ornées de planches… ("Letters to Julie on entomology, followed by a methodical description of the greatest part of the insects of France
France
with, decorated plates..."), dedicated to his future wife, Julie Ronchivole. In 1817, he became mayor of Saint-Jean-la-Bussière, where his parents had property. In 1827 he became, following his father and grandfather, a justice of the peace
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William Elford Leach
William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836)[1] was an English zoologist and marine biologist.Contents1 Life and work 2 Legacy 3 Leach's nomenclature 4 Bibliography 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife and work[edit] Libinia emarginata
Libinia emarginata
described by Leach in Zoological Miscellany in 1815.Elford Leach was born at Hoe Gate, Plymouth, the son of an attorney.[2] At the age of twelve he began a medical apprenticeship at the Devonshire and Exeter Hospital, studying anatomy and chemistry.[1] By this time he was already collecting marine animals from Plymouth Sound and along the Devon
Devon
coast
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Ross H. Arnett, Jr.
Ross Harold Arnett Jr. (April 13, 1919 – July 16, 1999) was an American entomologist noted for his studies of beetles, and as founder of the Coleopterist's Bulletin. Born in Medina, New York, he was a star student at Cornell University, where he became interested in beetles and started on a revision of the Nearctic Silphidae. He graduated in 1942, the same year that he married his high school sweetheart Mary Ennis. His first job was at the New York State Conservation Department, studying the stomach contents of game birds, but in July 1942 he joined the US Army (as a private) and was sent to Lowry Air Force Base to study the Sperry bombsight
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William Sharp Macleay
William Sharp Macleay
William Sharp Macleay
or McLeay (21 July 1792 – 26 January 1865) was a British civil servant and entomologist. After graduating, he worked for the British embassy in Paris, following his interest in natural history at the same time, publishing essays on insects and corresponding with Charles Darwin. Macleay moved to Havana, Cuba, where he was in turn commissioner of arbitration, commissary judge and then judge
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Michael C. Thomas
Michael C. Thomas (born 1948) is an American entomologist who is co-author of the book series American Beetles. Born in Miami, Florida, Thomas graduated from the University of South Florida in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in fine arts, followed by a Master of Science
Master of Science
degree in Entomology
Entomology
from the University of Florida in 1981. Thomas has also received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida. From 1986 to 1988, Thomas worked as a Taxonomic Entomologist for the West Virginia Department of Agriculture. Since 1988, Thomas has worked for the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in Gainesville as a Taxonomic Entomologist, an Entomology
Entomology
Section Administrator, and a Curator of Coleoptera
Coleoptera
and Orthoptera
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CRC Press
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books. Many of their books relate to engineering, science and mathematics. Their scope also includes books on business, forensics and information technology. CRC Press is now a division of Taylor & Francis, itself a subsidiary of Informa.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The CRC Press was founded as the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) in 1903 by brothers Arthur, Leo and Emanuel Friedman in Cleveland, Ohio, based on an earlier enterprise by Arthur, who had begun selling rubber laboratory aprons in 1900.[2][3] The company gradually expanded to include sales of laboratory equipment to chemists
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text.The Pterygota
Pterygota
are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).[1] The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha
Archaeognatha
(jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma
Zygentoma
(silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders
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Neoptera
Neoptera
Neoptera
is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.Contents1 Classification 2 Phylogeny 3 References 4 External linksClassification[edit] The taxon Neoptera
Neoptera
was proposed by А.М
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Endopterygota
Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera
Neoptera
that go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. They undergo a radical metamorphosis, with the larval and adult stages differing considerably in their structure and behaviour. This is called holometabolism, or complete metamorphism. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are among the most diverse insect superorders, with about 850,000 living species divided between 11 orders, containing insects such as butterflies, flies, fleas, bees, ants, and beetles.[1] They are distinguished from the Exopterygota
Exopterygota
(or Hemipterodea) by the way in which their wings develop. Endopterygota
Endopterygota
(meaning literally "internal winged forms") develop wings inside the body and undergo an elaborate metamorphosis involving a pupal stage
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Wilhelm Ferdinand Erichson
Dr Wilhelm Ferdinand Erichson
Wilhelm Ferdinand Erichson
(26 November 1809 in Stralsund
Stralsund
– 18 December 1848 in Berlin) was a trained medical doctor and a German entomologist. He was the author of many articles about insects mainly in Archiv für Naturgeschichte. He wrote a paper in 1842 on insect species collected at Woolnorth
Woolnorth
in Tasmania, Australia, which was the first detailed research published on the biogeography of Australian animals and was very influential in raising scientific interest in the Australian fauna.[1] Erichson was the curator of the Coleoptera collections at the Museum fur Naturkunde in Berlin
Berlin
from 1834 to 1848. Erichson's Scarabaeidae classification is nearly identical to the modern one.[2] Works[edit]Genera Dytiscorum. Berlin
Berlin
(1832) Die Käfer der Mark Brandenburg
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American Beetles
American Beetles is the single most comprehensive[citation needed] description of the beetles of North America
North America
north of the tropical area of Mexico. It was started by Ross H. Arnett, Jr. as an update of his classic The Beetles of the United States; along with Michael C. Thomas, he enlisted more than 60 specialists to write treatments of each family. The work outlived Arnett, and was published by CRC Press in 2001 (vol. 1) and 2002 (vol. 2). This is a highly technical book, with extensive references to the literature. The introduction includes a section on beetle anatomy that introduces all the technical terms used later
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Infraorder
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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