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Scarabaeoidea
See text. SCARABAEOIDEA is a superfamily of beetles , the only subgroup of the infraorder SCARABAEIFORMIA. Around 35,000 species are placed in this superfamily and some 200 new species are described each year. Its constituent families are also undergoing revision presently, and the family list below is only preliminary
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Michael C. Thomas
MICHAEL C. THOMAS (born 1948) is an American entomologist who is co-author of the book series American Beetles . Born in Miami, Florida , Thomas graduated from the University of South Florida in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in fine arts , followed by a Master of Science degree in Entomology from the University of Florida in 1981. Thomas has also received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida . From 1986 to 1988, Thomas worked as a Taxonomic Entomologist for the West Virginia Department of Agriculture . Since 1988, Thomas has worked for the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in Gainesville as a Taxonomic Entomologist, an Entomology Section Administrator, and a Curator of Coleoptera and Orthoptera . His research interests include the biology and systematics of Cucujidae , and the zoogeography of the Coleoptera of Florida
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CRC Press
The CRC PRESS, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books. Many of their books relate to engineering , science and mathematics . Their scope also includes books on business , forensics and information technology . CRC Press is now a division of Taylor & Francis , itself a subsidiary of Informa . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe CRC Press was founded as the CHEMICAL RUBBER COMPANY (CRC) in 1903 by brothers Arthur, Leo and Emanuel Friedman in Cleveland, Ohio, based on an earlier enterprise by Arthur, who had begun selling rubber laboratory aprons in 1900. The company gradually expanded to include sales of laboratory equipment to chemists . In 1913 the CRC offered a short (116-page) manual called the Rubber Handbook as an incentive for any purchase of a dozen aprons
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François Louis De La Porte, Comte De Castelnau
FRANçOIS LOUIS NOMPAR DE CAUMONT LA FORCE, COMTE DE CASTELNAU (25 December 1810 – 4 February 1880) was a French naturalist , known also as FRANçOIS LAPORTE or FRANCIS DE CASTELNAU. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Hoax Australian fish * 3 Works * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFEBorn in London, Castelnau studied natural history in Paris. From 1837 to 1841 he led a scientific expedition to Canada, where he studied the fauna of the Canadian lakes and the political systems of Upper and Lower Canada (roughly corresponding to the modern provinces of Ontario and Quebec ) and of the United States. Castelnau, a French savant, was sent by Louis Philippe , in 1843, with two botanists and a taxidermist , on an expedition to cross South America from Rio de Janeiro to Lima , following the watershed between the Amazon and La Plata river systems, and thence to Pará . He was gone for five years
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Levant
Cyprus
Cyprus
Israel
Israel
Iraq
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Ross H. Arnett, Jr.
ROSS HAROLD ARNETT, JR. (April 13, 1919 – July 16, 1999) was an American entomologist noted for his studies of beetles , and as founder of the Coleopterist\'s Bulletin . Born in Medina, New York , he was a star student at Cornell University , where he became interested in beetles and started on a revision of the Nearctic Silphidae . He graduated in 1942, the same year that he married his high school sweetheart Mary Ennis . His first job was at the New York State Conservation Department , studying the stomach contents of game birds , but in July 1942 he joined the US Army (as a private) and was sent to Lowry Air Force Base to study the Sperry bombsight . After this diversion into non-insect work, he went to Avon Park Air Force Range in Florida to survey the mosquito population and control it, and from there to the Army School of Malariology in Panama to teach mosquito taxonomy
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Rain Beetle
The RAIN BEETLES are a group of beetles found in the far west of North America . They spend most of their lives underground, emerging in response to rain or snow, thus the common name. Formerly classified in the Geotrupidae , they are currently assigned to their own family PLEOCOMIDAE, considered the sister group to all the remaining families of Scarabaeoidea . The family contains a single extant genus, PLEOCOMA, and two extinct genera, CRETOCOMA, described in 2002 from Late Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia , and Proteroscarabeus of Late Cretaceous China . Possessing a robust oval body form similar to other scarabaeiforms, their ventral side is densely covered with fine, long hairs (genus name derives from Greek πλείων (ple-, abundant) and κόμη (kome, hair), extending to the legs and to the margins of thorax and elytra . The back is hairless and glossy. Overall colors range from black to a reddish-brown, while the hairs may range from yellow to red to black
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Étienne Mulsant
MARTIAL ÉTIENNE MULSANT (2 March 1797, Marnand, Rhône – 4 November 1880) was a French entomologist and ornithologist . Initially employed in commerce, Mulsant wrote writes Lettres à Julie sur l'entomologie, suivies d'une description méthodique de la plus grande partie des insectes de France, ornées de planches… ("Letters to Julie on entomology, followed by a methodical description of the greatest part of the insects of France with, decorated plates..."), dedicated to his future wife, Julie Ronchivole. In 1817, he became mayor of Saint-Jean-la-Bussière , where his parents had property. In 1827 he became, following his father and grandfather, a justice of the peace. He settled in Lyon in 1830 and in 1839, he obtained a post of assistant librarian then, in 1843, a post of professor of natural history in a college; a post he occupied until 1873
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William Sharp MacLeay
WILLIAM SHARP MACLEAY or MCLEAY (21 July 1792 – 26 January 1865) was a British civil servant and entomologist . After graduating, he worked for the British embassy in Paris , following his interest in natural history at the same time, publishing essays on insects and corresponding with Charles Darwin . Macleay moved to Havana , Cuba , where he was in turn commissioner of arbitration, commissary judge and then judge. Retiring from this work, he emigrated to Australia where he continued to collect insects and studied marine natural history. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Early scientific career * 3 Havana * 4 Australia * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links EARLY LIFEMacleay was born in London , eldest son of Alexander Macleay who named him for his then business partner, fellow wine merchant William Sharp. He attended Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge graduating with honours in 1814
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William Elford Leach
WILLIAM ELFORD LEACH, MD , FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836) was an English zoologist and marine biologist . CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Legacy * 3 Leach\'s nomenclature * 4 Bibliography
Bibliography
* 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links LIFE AND WORK Libinia emarginata
Libinia emarginata
described by Leach in Zoological Miscellany in 1815. Elford Leach was born at Hoe Gate, Plymouth
Plymouth
, the son of an attorney. At the age of twelve he began a medical apprenticeship at the Devonshire and Exeter Hospital , studying anatomy and chemistry . By this time he was already collecting marine animals from Plymouth
Plymouth
Sound and along the Devon
Devon
coast
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text. The PTERYGOTA are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution). The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma (silverfishes and firebrats ), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders no longer considered to be insects: Protura , Collembola
Collembola
, and Diplura
Diplura

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American Beetles
AMERICAN BEETLES is the single most comprehensive description of the beetles of North America north of the tropical area of Mexico . It was started by Ross H. Arnett, Jr. as an update of his classic The Beetles of the United States; along with Michael C. Thomas , he enlisted more than 60 specialists to write treatments of each family. The work outlived Arnett, and was published by CRC Press in 2001 (vol. 1) and 2002 (vol. 2). This is a highly technical book, with extensive references to the literature. The introduction includes a section on beetle anatomy that introduces all the technical terms used later. The bulk of the content consists of treatments of the 130-odd families known to occur in North America (a couple dozen are not known from North America, and are not described); the descriptive material applies worldwide, and there are brief notes about non-North American family members
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Endopterygota
ENDOPTERYGOTA, also known as HOLOMETABOLA, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera that go through distinctive larval , pupal , and adult stages. They undergo a radical metamorphosis , with the larval and adult stages differing considerably in their structure and behaviour. This is called holometabolism , or complete metamorphism. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are among the most diverse insect superorders, with about 850,000 living species divided between 11 orders , containing insects such as butterflies , flies , fleas , bees , ants , and beetles . They are distinguished from the Exopterygota (or Hemipterodea) by the way in which their wings develop. Endopterygota
Endopterygota
(meaning literally "internal winged forms") develop wings inside the body and undergo an elaborate metamorphosis involving a pupal stage
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Insect
See text . SYNONYMS * Ectognatha * EntomidaINSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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