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Scarabaeidae
Aegialiinae Allidiostomatinae Aphodiinae Cetoniinae Dynastinae Dynamopodinae Euchirinae Melolonthinae Orphninae Pachypodinae Phaenomeridinae Phileurinae Rutelinae Scarabaeinae Termitotroginae The family SCARABAEIDAE as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called SCARABS or SCARAB BEETLES. The classification of this family is fairly unstable, with numerous competing theories, and new proposals appearing quite often. Many of the subfamilies listed here probably will not be recognized very much longer, as they will likely be reduced in status below subfamily rank, or elevated to family status (the latter is most likely, e.g., with the family "Melolonthidae" already appearing in some recent classifications)
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Ancient Egyptian Religion
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RELIGION was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces of nature. Rituals such as prayers and offerings were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh , the king of Egypt, who was believed to possess a divine power by virtue of his position. He acted as the intermediary between his people and the gods and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe . The state dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and to the construction of the temples . Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic
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Philosophical Magazine
The PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English. It was established by Alexander Tilloch in 1798; in 1822 Richard Taylor became joint editor and it has been published continuously by Taylor "> CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 19th century * 3 20th century * 4 Recent developments * 5 Editors * 6 Philosophical Magazine
Philosophical Magazine
Letters * 7 Series * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY HISTORYThe name of the journal dates from a period when "natural philosophy" embraced all aspects of science. The very first paper published in the journal carried the title "Account of Mr Cartwright's Patent Steam Engine". Other articles in the first volume include "Methods of discovering whether Wine has been adulterated with any Metals prejudicial to Health" and "Description of the Apparatus used by Lavoisier to produce Water from its component Parts, Oxygen and Hydrogen"
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Thutmosis III
THUTMOSE III (sometimes read as THUTMOSIS or TUTHMOSIS III, THOTHMES in older history works, and meaning " Thoth
Thoth
is born") was the sixth Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of the Eighteenth Dynasty . During the first 22 years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
, who was named the pharaoh. While he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other. He served as the head of her armies. After the death of Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
, and Thutmosis III's later rise to pharaoh of the kingdom, he created the largest empire Egypt
Egypt
had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niya in North Syria
Syria
to the Fourth Cataract of the Nile in Nubia
Nubia

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Karnak
The KARNAK TEMPLE COMPLEX, commonly known as KARNAK (/ˈkɑːr.næk/ ), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples , chapels, pylons, and other buildings. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period , although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom . The area around Karnak
Karnak
was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places") and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun
Amun
as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes . The Karnak
Karnak
complex gives its name to the nearby, and partly surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres (1.6 miles) north of Luxor
Luxor

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Carrion
CARRION (from Latin
Latin
caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying dead flesh of an animal. OVERVIEW Carrion
Carrion
is an important food source for large carnivores and omnivores in most ecosystems. Examples of carrion-eaters (or scavengers ) include vultures , hawks , eagles , hyenas , Virginia opossum , Tasmanian devils , coyotes , and Komodo dragons . Many invertebrates such as the carrion and burying beetles , as well as maggots of calliphorid flies and flesh-flies also eat carrion, playing an important role in recycling nitrogen and carbon in animal remains. Play media Zoarcid fish feeding on the carrion of a mobulid ray . Carrion
Carrion
begins to decay the moment of the animal's death, and it will increasingly attract insects and breed bacteria
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Lamella (zoology)
In surface anatomy , a LAMELLA is a thin plate-like structure, often one amongst many LAMELLAE very close to one another, with open space between. Aside from respiratory organs, they appear in other biological roles including filter feeding and the traction surfaces of geckos . In fish gills there are two types of lamellae, primary and secondary. The primary gill lamellae come out of the interbranchial septum at the fish gill filament to increase the contact area between the water and the blood capillaries that lie in the fish gill filaments. The secondary gill lamellae are small lamellae that come out of the primary ones and are used to further increase the contact area. Both types of lamellae are used to increase the amount of oxygen intake of the blood. Both types of lamellae contain huge amounts of capillaries and are the sites where the exchange of oxygen from the water and carbon dioxide from the blood occurs
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Subfamily
In biological classification , a SUBFAMILY ( Latin
Latin
: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank , next below family but more inclusive than genus . Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae". SEE ALSO * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants * International Code of Zoological Nomenclature * Rank (botany) * Rank (zoology) SOURCES * ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG
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Pierre André Latreille
PIERRE ANDRé LATREILLE (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist , specialising in arthropods . Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution
French Revolution
, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis
Necrobia ruficollis
. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d\'Histoire Naturelle . His foresighted work on arthropod systematics and taxonomy gained him respect and accolades, including being asked to write the volume on arthropods for George Cuvier 's monumental work, Le Règne Animal , the only part not by Cuvier himself. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his time, and was described by one of his pupils as "the prince of entomologists"
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Edmund Reitter
EDMUND REITTER (22 October 1845 – 15 March 1920) was an Austrian entomologist , writer and a collector. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Gallery * 3.1 Sources * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYEdmund Reitter
Reitter
was best known as an expert on the beetles of the Palaearctic
Palaearctic
. He was an imperial advisor and editor of the "Wiener Entomologischen Zeitung", (Vienna Entomological Gazette)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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Larva
A LARVA (plural larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/ ) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults . Animals with indirect development such as insects , amphibians , or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle . The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies ). A larva often has unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs . By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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