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Scabies
SCABIES, previously known as the SEVEN-YEAR ITCH, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei . The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple -like rash. Occasionally, tiny burrows may be seen in the skin. Once infected, a never-before-infected person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks. If a person has a second exposure later in life, the body's immune system will often respond much more quickly and symptoms may begin within as little as 24 hours. These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline. The head may be affected, but this is typically only in young children. The itch is often worse at night. Scratching may cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the skin. Scabies
Scabies
is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis
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Cancer
CANCER is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors , which do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss , and a change in bowel movements . While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. Tobacco
Tobacco
use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity , poor diet , lack of physical activity , and excessive drinking of alcohol . Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B , hepatitis C and human papillomavirus infection . These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell
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Immunosuppressive Drug
IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUGS or IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS or ANTIREJECTION MEDICATIONS are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system . They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to: * Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow , heart , kidney , liver ) * Treat autoimmune diseases or diseases that are most likely of autoimmune origin (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis , multiple sclerosis , myasthenia gravis , psoriasis , vitiligo , systemic lupus erythematosus , sarcoidosis , focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , Crohn\'s disease , Behcet\'s Disease , pemphigus , and ulcerative colitis ). * Treat some other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases (e.g., long term allergic asthma control), ankylosing spondylitis .A common side-effect of many immunosuppressive drugs is immunodeficiency , because the majority of them act non-selectively, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections and decreased cancer immunosurveillance
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Etiology
ETIOLOGY (/iːtiˈɒlədʒi/ ; alternatively AETIOLOGY or æTIOLOGY) is the study of causation , or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία, aitiologia, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία, aitia, "cause"; and -λογία, -logia). The word is most commonly used in medical and philosophical theories, where it is used to refer to the study of why things occur, or even the reasons behind the way that things act, and is used in philosophy , physics , psychology , government , geography , spatial analysis , medicine , theology , and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena . An etiological myth is a myth intended to explain a name or create a mythic history for a place or family, an origin story
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Arachnida
ARACHNIDS are a class (ARACHNIDA) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods ), in the subphylum Chelicerata . All arachnids have eight legs , although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs. The term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη (aráchnē), meaning "spider". Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions , ticks , mites , harvestmen , and solifuges . Almost all extant arachnids are terrestrial , living mainly on land. However, some inhabit freshwater environments and, with the exception of the pelagic zone , marine environments as well. They comprise over 100,000 named species
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Immunodeficiency
IMMUNODEFICIENCY (or IMMUNE DEFICIENCY) is a state in which the immune system 's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired ("secondary") due to extrinsic factors that affect the patient's immune system. Examples of these extrinsic factors include HIV
HIV
infection, extremes of age, and environmental factors, such as nutrition. In the clinical setting, the immunosuppression by some drugs, such as steroids, can be either an adverse effect or the intended purpose of the treatment. Examples of such use is in organ transplant surgery as an anti-rejection measure and in patients suffering from an overactive immune system, as in autoimmune diseases . Some people are born with intrinsic defects in their immune system, or primary immunodeficiency . A person who has an immunodeficiency of any kind is said to be IMMUNOCOMPROMISED
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Acropustulosis
ACROPUSTULOSIS refers to Acrodermatitis with pustular involvement
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Tinea
TINEA, often called RINGWORM, is any of a variety of skin mycoses . Tinea is a very common fungal infection of the skin. Tinea is often called "ringworm" because the rash is circular, with a ring-like appearance. It is sometimes equated with dermatophytosis , and, while most conditions identified as "tinea" are members of the imperfect fungi that make up the dermatophytes , conditions such as tinea nigra and tinea versicolor are not caused by dermatophytes
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Tropical Climate
A TROPICAL CLIMATE in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Epidermis (skin)
The EPIDERMIS is the outer (ἐπί epi in Greek meaning "over" or "upon") of the two layers that make up the skin (or cutis ; Greek δέρμα derma), the inner layer being the dermis . This skin layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of stratified layers of flattened cells , that overlies a basal layer (stratum basale ) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly. The rows of cells develop from the stem cells in the basal layer. ENaCs are found to be expressed in all layers of the epidermis
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Stratum Corneum
The STRATUM CORNEUM ( Latin
Latin
for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis , consisting of dead cells (corneocytes ). This layer is composed of 15–20 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles. Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin . These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides , cholesterol , and fatty acids . The stratum corneum functions to form a barrier to protect underlying tissue from infection , dehydration , chemicals and mechanical stress. Desquamation
Desquamation
, the process of cell shedding from the surface of the stratum corneum, balances proliferating keratinocytes that form in the stratum basale . These cells migrate through the epidermis towards the surface in a journey that takes approximately fourteen days
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Egg (biology)
An EGG is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from fertilization of an ovum . Most arthropods , vertebrates , and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions and most mammals , do not. Reptile
Reptile
eggs, bird eggs , and monotreme eggs are laid out of water, and are surrounded by a protective shell , either flexible or inflexible. Eggs laid on land or in nests are usually kept within a warm and favorable temperature range while the embryo grows. When the embryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e. breaks out of the egg's shell. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth they use to crack, pip, or break the eggshell or covering. The largest recorded egg is from a whale shark , and was 30 cm × 14 cm × 9 cm (11.8 in × 5.5 in × 3.5 in) in size
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Antibody-mediated Immunity
HUMORAL IMMUNITY or HUMOURAL IMMUNITY is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies , complement proteins , and certain antimicrobial peptides . Humoral immunity is so named because it involves substances found in the humors , or body fluids . It contrasts with cell-mediated immunity . Its aspects involving antibodies are often called ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The study of the molecular and cellular components that form the immune system , including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology . The immune system is divided into a more primitive innate immune system , and acquired or adaptive immune system of vertebrates , each of which contains humoral and cellular components
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Hypersensitivity
HYPERSENSITIVITY (also called HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION or INTOLERANCE) is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity . They are usually referred to as an over- reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host.They are classified in four groups after the proposal of P. G. H. Gell and Robin Coombs in 1963
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Contagious Disease
A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE is a subset category of transmissible diseases , which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes. Non-contagious infections, by contrast, usually require a special mode of transmission between persons or hosts . These include need for intermediate vector species (mosquitoes that carry malaria ) or by non-casual transfer of bodily fluid (such as transfusions , needle sharing or sexual contact ). The boundary between contagious and non-contagious infectious diseases is not perfectly drawn, as illustrated classically by tuberculosis , which is clearly transmissible from person to person, but was not classically considered a contagious disease. In the present day, most sexually transmitted diseases are considered contagious, but only some of them are subject to medical isolation
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