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Scabies
SCABIES, previously known as the SEVEN-YEAR ITCH, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei . The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple -like rash. Occasionally, tiny burrows may be seen in the skin. In a first ever infection a person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks. During a second infection symptoms may begin in as little as 24 hours. These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline. The head may be affected, but this is typically only in young children. The itch is often worse at night. Scratching may cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the skin. Scabies
Scabies
is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis . The mites burrow into the skin to live and deposit eggs
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Cancer
CANCER is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements . While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is due to obesity , poor diet , lack of physical activity , and excessive drinking of alcohol . Other factors include certain infections , exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B , hepatitis C and human papillomavirus infection . These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell
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Sarcoptes Scabiei Var. Hominis
SARCOPTES is a genus of mites. In some contexts, the types are all considered subordinate to Sarcoptes scabiei . * Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis * S. s. var. canis * S. s. var. caprae * S. s. var. equi * S. s. var. hominis * S. s. var. ovis * S. s. var. suisIn other cases, (as with S. equi ), these are sometimes considered distinct species. The term Sarcoptes canis appears in older references, but is now usually described as Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis or Sarcoptes scabiei canis. REFERENCES * ^ Friedrich Küchenmeister ; Sydenham Society (1857). On animal and vegetable parasites of the human body: a manual of their natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. Printed for the Sydenham society. pp. 51–. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Ugbomoiko US; Ariza L; Heukelbach J (2008). "Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners". BMC Vet. Res
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Immunosuppressive Drug
IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUGS or IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS or ANTIREJECTION MEDICATIONS are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system . They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to: * Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow , heart , kidney , liver ) * Treat autoimmune diseases or diseases that are most likely of autoimmune origin (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis , multiple sclerosis , myasthenia gravis , psoriasis , vitiligo , systemic lupus erythematosus , sarcoidosis , focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , Crohn\'s disease , Behcet\'s Disease , pemphigus , and ulcerative colitis ). * Treat some other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases (e.g., long term allergic asthma control), ankylosing spondylitis .A common side-effect of many immunosuppressive drugs is immunodeficiency , because the majority of them act non-selectively, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections and decreased cancer immunosurveillance
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Etiology
ETIOLOGY (/iːtiˈɒlədʒi/ ; alternatively AETIOLOGY or æTIOLOGY) is the study of causation , or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία, _aitiologia_, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία, _aitia_, "cause"; and -λογία, _-logia_). The word is most commonly used in medical and philosophical theories, where it is used to refer to the study of why things occur, or even the reasons behind the way that things act, and is used in philosophy , physics , psychology , government , geography , spatial analysis , medicine , theology , and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena . An etiological myth is a myth intended to explain a name or create a mythic history for a place or family, an origin story
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Stratum Corneum
The _STRATUM CORNEUM_ ( Latin for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis , consisting of dead cells (corneocytes ). This layer is composed of 15–20 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles. Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin . These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides , cholesterol , and fatty acids . The stratum corneum functions to form a barrier to protect underlying tissue from infection , dehydration , chemicals and mechanical stress. Desquamation , the process of cell shedding from the surface of the _stratum corneum_, balances proliferating keratinocytes that form in the _stratum basale _. These cells migrate through the epidermis towards the surface in a journey that takes approximately fourteen days
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Arachnida
ARACHNIDS are a class (ARACHNIDA) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods ), in the subphylum Chelicerata . All arachnids have eight legs , although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs. The term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη (_aráchnē_), meaning "spider". Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions , ticks , mites , harvestmen , and solifuges . Almost all extant arachnids are terrestrial , living mainly on land. However, some inhabit freshwater environments and, with the exception of the pelagic zone , marine environments as well. They comprise over 100,000 named species
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Allergic Reaction
ALLERGIES, also known as ALLERGIC DISEASES, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people. These diseases include hay fever , food allergies , atopic dermatitis , allergic asthma , and anaphylaxis . Symptoms may include red eyes , an itchy rash, sneezing , a runny nose , shortness of breath , or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions. Common allergens include pollen and certain food. Metals and other substances may also cause problems. Food, insect stings , and medications are common causes of severe reactions. Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors
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Immunosuppression
IMMUNOSUPPRESSION is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system . Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant , Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant , or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren\'s syndrome , or Crohn\'s disease . This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy ), plasmapharesis , or radiation. A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons ( chemotherapy or HIV
HIV
), is said to be immunocompromised
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Acropustulosis
ACROPUSTULOSIS refers to Acrodermatitis with pustular involvement
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Tropical Climate
A TROPICAL CLIMATE in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year
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Developing World
A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, also called a LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRY or an UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY, is a nation or a sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) relative to other countries. There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
compared with other nations. Also the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country . The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. There is criticism for using the term developing country
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Tinea
TINEA, or RINGWORM, is any of a variety of skin mycoses . Tinea is a very common fungal infection of the skin. Tinea is often called "ringworm" because the rash is circular, with a ring-like appearance. It is sometimes equated with dermatophytosis , and, while most conditions identified as "tinea" are members of the imperfect fungi that make up the dermatophytes , conditions such as tinea nigra and tinea versicolor are not caused by dermatophytes
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