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Scabies
Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.[3][1] The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple-like rash.[2] Occasionally, tiny burrows may be seen in the skin.[2] In a first-ever infection a person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks.[2] During a second infection symptoms may begin in as little as 24 hours.[2] These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline.[2] The head may be affected, but this is typically only in young children.[2] The itch is often worse at night.[2] Scratching may cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the skin.[2] Scabies
Scabies
is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var
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Contagious Disease
A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.[1] Non-contagious infections, by contrast, usually require a special mode of transmission between persons or hosts. These include need for intermediate vector species (mosquitoes that carry malaria) or by non-casual transfer of bodily fluid (such as transfusions, needle sharing or sexual contact). The boundary between contagious and non-contagious infectious diseases is not perfectly drawn, as illustrated classically by tuberculosis, which is clearly transmissible from person to person, but was not classically considered a contagious disease
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Arachnida
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata. All arachnids have eight legs, although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs. The term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη (aráchnē), from the myth of the hubristic human weaver Arachne
Arachne
who was turned into a spider.[1] Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions, ticks, mites, harvestmen, and solifuges.[2] Almost all extant arachnids are terrestrial, living mainly on land. However, some inhabit freshwater environments and, with the exception of the pelagic zone, marine environments as well
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Tropical Climate
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical
Tropical
climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year.Contents1 Sub types1.1 Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate 1.2 Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate 1.3 Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate 1.4 Exceptions2 Intertropical Convergence Zone 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSub types[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Developing World
A developing country, also called a less developed country or an underdeveloped country, is a nation with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) relative to other countries.[1] However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.[2] A nation's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
compared with other nations can also be a reference point. The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[3] There is criticism for using the term developing country. The term implies inferiority of a developing country or undeveloped country compared with a developed country, which many countries dislike
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Tinea
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.[2] Typically it results in a red, itchy, scaly, circular rash.[1] Hair loss may occur in the area affected.[1] Symptoms begin four to fourteen days after exposure.[1] Multiple areas can be affected at a given time.[4] About 40 types of fungi can cause ringworm.[2] They are typically of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, or Epidermophyton type.[2] Risk factors include using public showers, contact sports such as wrestling, excessive sweating, contact with animals, obesity, and poor immune function.[3][4] Ringworm can spread from other animals or between people.[3] Diagnosis is often based on the appearance and symptoms.[5] It may be confirmed by either culturing or looking at a skin scraping under a microscope.[5] Prevention is by keeping the skin dry, not walking barefoot in public, and not sharing personal items.[3] Treatment is typically with antifungal creams such as clotrimazole or miconazole.[7] If the scalp i
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Immunosuppression
Immunosuppression
Immunosuppression
is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.[1][2] In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant,[3] Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, or Crohn's disease. This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy), plasmapheresis, or radiation
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Allergic Reaction
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people.[10] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[1] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[5][4] Common allergens include pollen and certain food.[10] Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[10] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions.[3] Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system
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Sarcoptes Scabiei Var. Hominis
Sarcoptes is a genus of mites. In some contexts, the types are all considered subordinate to Sarcoptes scabiei.Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis S. s. var. canis S. s. var. caprae S. s. var. equi S. s. var. hominis S. s. var. ovis S. s. var. suisIn other cases, (as with S. equi), these are sometimes considered distinct species. The term Sarcoptes canis appears in older references,[1] but is now usually described as Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis[2] or Sarcoptes scabiei canis. References[edit]^ Friedrich Küchenmeister; Sydenham Society (1857). On animal and vegetable parasites of the human body: a manual of their natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. Printed for the Sydenham society. pp. 51–. Retrieved 25 April 2010.  ^ Ugbomoiko US; Ariza L; Heukelbach J (2008). "Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners". BMC Vet. Res. 4: 49. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-4-49
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Immunodeficiency
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired ("secondary") due to extrinsic factors that affect the patient's immune system. Examples of these extrinsic factors include HIV infection, extremes of age, and environmental factors, such as nutrition.[1] In the clinical setting, the immunosuppression by some drugs, such as steroids, can be either an adverse effect or the intended purpose of the treatment. Examples of such use is in organ transplant surgery as an anti-rejection measure and in patients suffering from an overactive immune system, as in autoimmune diseases. Some people are born with intrinsic defects in their immune system, or primary immunodeficiency. A person who has an immunodeficiency of any kind is said to be immunocompromised
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Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8] Tobacco
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Immunosuppressive Drug
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow, heart, kidney, liver) Treat autoimmune diseases or diseases that are most likely of autoimmune origin (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, vitiligo, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Crohn's disease, Behcet's Disease, pemphigus, and ulcerative colitis). Treat some other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases (e.g., long term allergic asthma control), ankylosing spondylitis.A common side-effect of many immunosuppressive drugs is immunodeficiency, because the majority of them act non-selectively, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections and decreased cancer immunosurveillance
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Etiology
Etiology (/iːtiˈɒlədʒi/; alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία, aitiología, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία, aitía, "cause"; and -λογία, -logía).[1] More completely, etiology the study of the causes, origins, or reasons behind the way that things are, or the way they function, or it can refer to the causes themselves.[2] The word is commonly used in medicine, (where it is a branch of medicine studying causes of diease) and in philosophy, but also in physics, psychology, government, geography, spatial analysis, theology, and biology, in reference to the causes or origins of various phenomena. In the past, when many physical phenomena were not well understood, and/or when histories were not recorded, myths often arose to provide etiologies
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Stratum Corneum
The stratum corneum ( Latin
Latin
for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes). This layer is composed of 15–20 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles. Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids.[2] The stratum corneum functions to form a barrier to protect underlying tissue from infection, dehydration, chemicals and mechanical stress. Desquamation, the process of cell shedding from the surface of the stratum corneum, balances proliferating keratinocytes that form in the stratum basale
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