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Sauropsida
Sauropsida
Sauropsida
("lizard faces") is a group of amniotes that includes all existing birds and reptiles as well as their fossil ancestors and other extinct relatives. Large land animals are either in this group or in its sister group, Synapsida, which includes mammals and their fossil relatives. This clade includes Parareptilia
Parareptilia
and other extinct clades. All living sauropsids are members of the sub-group Diapsida, the Parareptilia
Parareptilia
clade having died out 200 million years ago
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Edwin Stephen Goodrich
Edwin Stephen Goodrich FRS[1] (Weston-super-Mare, 21 June 1868 – Oxford, 6 January 1946), was an English zoologist, specialising in comparative anatomy, embryology, palaeontology, and evolution. He held the Linacre Chair of Zoology in the University of Oxford
Oxford
from 1921 to 1946. He served as editor of the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science from 1920 until his death.[2]Contents1 Life 2 Career 3 Selected works 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife[edit] Goodrich's father died when Goodrich was only two weeks old, and his mother took her children to live with her mother at Pau, France, where he attended the local English school and a French lycée. In 1888 he entered the Slade School of Art
Slade School of Art
at University College London; there he met E
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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Transitional Fossil
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.[1] This is especially important where the descendant group is sharply differentiated by gross anatomy and mode of living from the ancestral group. These fossils serve as a reminder that taxonomic divisions are human constructs that have been imposed in hindsight on a continuum of variation. Because of the incompleteness of the fossil record, there is usually no way to know exactly how close a transitional fossil is to the point of divergence. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that transitional fossils are direct ancestors of more recent groups, though they are frequently used as models for such ancestors.[2] In 1859, when Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
was first published, the fossil record was poorly known
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Royal College Of Surgeons Of England
The Royal College of Surgeons
Surgeons
of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields
Lincoln's Inn Fields
in London
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Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx
(/ˌɑːrkiːˈɒptərɪks/), meaning "old wing" (sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird")), is a genus of bird-like dinosaurs that is transitional between non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds
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Hesperornis
†H. regalis Marsh, 1872 †H. crassipes (Marsh, 1876) †H. gracilis Marsh, 1876 †H. altus (Marsh, 1893) †H. montana Schufeldt, 1915 †H. rossicus Nesov & Yarkov, 1993 †H. bairdi Martin & Lim, 2002 †H. chowi Martin & Lim, 2002 †H. macdonaldi Martin & Lim, 2002 †H. mengeli Martin & Lim, 2002 †H. lumgairi Aotsuka & Sato, 2016 (in press) [1]SynonymsLestornis Marsh, 1876 Coniornis Marsh, 1893 Hargeria Lucas, 1903 Hesperornis
Hesperornis
(meaning "western bird") is a genus of penguin-like bird that spanned the first half of the Campanian
Campanian
age of the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period (83.5–78 mya). One of the lesser-known discoveries of the paleontologist O. C. Marsh in the late 19th century Bone Wars, it was an early find in the history of avian paleontology
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Dicynodon
†D. lacerticeps Owen, 1845 (type) †D. huenei Haughton, 1932SynonymsSee below Dicynodon
Dicynodon
("Two Dog-teeth") is a type of dicynodont therapsid that flourished during the Late Permian
Permian
period. Like all dicynodonts, it was herbivorous. This animal was toothless, except for prominent tusks, hence the name. It probably cropped vegetation with a horny beak, much like a tortoise, while the tusks may have been used for digging up roots and tubers. Many species of Dicynodon
Dicynodon
have been named, and the genus is considered a wastebasket taxon. A 2011 study of the genus found most of the species to represent a paraphyletic grouping, with the only valid members of Dicynodon
Dicynodon
being D. lacerticeps and D. huenei.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Species 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit]Restoration of D
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Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins
Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins
Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins
(8 February 1807 – 27 January 1894) was an English sculptor and natural history artist renowned for his work on the life-size models of dinosaurs in the Crystal Palace Park
Crystal Palace Park
in south London. The models, accurately made using the latest scientific knowledge, created a sensation at the time
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Romeriida
Romeriida
Romeriida
is a clade of reptiles that consists of diapsids and the extinct protorothyridid genus Paleothyris, if not the entire family Protorothyrididae. It is phylogenetically defined by Laurin & Reisz (1995) as the last common ancestor of Paleothyris
Paleothyris
and diapsids, and all its descendants.[1] It is named after Alfred Romer, a prominent vertebrate paleontologist of the twentieth century.[2] Protorothyridids were once placed in the family Romeriidae along with the captorhinid Romeria.[1] Because Romeria
Romeria
is now considered to be a captorhinid, and Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
is placed outside Romeriida, the genus is excluded from the clade. Protorothyridids were once the collective term for several romeriid genera of uncertain classification
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Captorhinidae
See textSynonymsRomeriidae Price, 1937 Cotylosauria Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
(also known as cotylosaurs) is one of the earliest and most basal reptile families, all members of which are extinct.Contents1 Description 2 Discovery and history 3 Classification3.1 Taxonomy 3.2 Phylogeny4 Paleobiology4.1 Caudal autotomy5 ReferencesDescription[edit]Life restoration of Labidosaurus
Labidosaurus
hamatusCaptorhinids are a clade of small to very large lizard-like reptiles that date from the late Carboniferous
Carboniferous
through the Permian. Their skulls were much stronger than those of their relatives, the Protorothyrididae, and had teeth that were better able to deal with tough plant material
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Thuringothyris
Thuringothyris is an extinct genus of Early Permian
Early Permian
eureptiles known from the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
in central Germany.[1][2] Description[edit] Thuringothyris is known from the holotype MNG 7729, articulated well-preserved skull and partial postcranial skeleton, and from the referred specimens MNG 10652, poorly preserved skull and partial vertebral column, MNG 10647, disarticulated cranial and postcranial remains of at least four individuals, MNG 10183, slightly crushed skull and partial postcranial skeleton and MNG 11191, poorly preserved skull and partial limbs. All specimens were collected from the Tambach-Sandstein Member, the uppermost part of the Tambach Formation, dating to the Artinskian stage of the Late Cisuralian
Cisuralian
Series (or alternatively upper Rotliegend), about 284-279.5 million years ago
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Brouffia
Brouffia is an extinct genus of Late Carboniferous
Late Carboniferous
(late Westphalian stage) basal reptile known from Pilsen of Czech Republic. It is known from a single partial skeleton, the holotype ČGH III B.21.C.587 and MP 451 (part and counterpart). It was collected in the Nýřany site from the Nýřany Member of the Kladno Formation. It was first named by was first named by Robert L. Carroll and Donald Baird in 1972 and the type species is Brouffia orientalis.[1] References[edit]^ Robert L. Carroll & Donald Baird (1972). "Carboniferous Stem-Reptiles of the Family Romeriidae". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 143 (5): 321–363. Taxon identifiersWd: Q4975758 EoL: 24174482 GBIF: 4818804This article related to a Carboniferous
Carboniferous
animal is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about a prehistoric reptile is a stub
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