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Saturn (rocket Family)
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond. Originally proposed as a military satellite launcher, they were adopted as the launch vehicles for the Apollo moon program. Three versions were built and flown: Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn name was proposed by von Braun in October 1958 as a logical successor to the Jupiter series as well as the Roman god's powerful position.[1] In 1963, president John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
identified the Saturn I
Saturn I
SA-5 launch as being the point where US lift capability would surpass the Soviets, after having been behind since Sputnik
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AS-103 (spacecraft)
AS-103 was the third orbital flight test of a boilerplate Apollo spacecraft, and the first flight of a Pegasus micrometeroid detection satellite. Also known as SA-9, it was the third operational launch of a two-stage Saturn I
Saturn I
launch vehicle.Contents1 Objectives 2 Launch 3 Results 4 References 5 External linksObjectives[edit] Of 12 flight objectives assigned, two were concerned with the operation of the Pegasus satellite, eight with launch vehicle systems performance, one with jettisoning the launch escape system, and one with separation of the boilerplate spacecraft. The satellite objectives were (1) demonstration of the functional operations of the mechanical, structural, and electronic systems and (2) evaluation of meteoroid data sampling in near-Earth orbit
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Advanced Research Projects Agency
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
in 1957. Since its inception, the agency's mission is ensuring that the United States avoids further technological surprise.[3] By collaborating with academic, industry, and government partners, DARPA
DARPA
formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate U.S
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Viking Rocket
The Viking rocket series of sounding rockets were designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company
Glenn L. Martin Company
(now Lockheed-Martin) under the direction of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
Naval Research Laboratory
(NRL). Twelve Viking rockets flew from 1949 to 1955.[1]Contents1 Origins 2 Design features 3 Flight history 4 Achievements 5 Viking into Vanguard 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOrigins[edit] After World War II, the United States experimented with captured German V-2 rockets as part of the Hermes project. Based on these experiments the U.S. decided in 1946 to develop its own large liquid-fueled rocket design, to be called Neptune but changed to Viking. The intent was both to provide an independent U.S. capability in rocketry, to continue the Hermes project
Hermes project
after the V-2's were expended, and to provide a vehicle better suited to scientific research
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MGM-5 Corporal
The MGM-5 Corporal
MGM-5 Corporal
missile was a nuclear-armed tactical ground to ground missile. It was the first guided weapon authorized by the United States
United States
to carry a nuclear warhead.[i] A guided tactical ballistic missile, the Corporal could deliver either a nuclear fission or high-explosive warhead up to a range of 75 nautical miles (139 km). Developed by the United States Army
United States Army
in partnership with Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, Gilfillan Brothers Inc., Douglas Aircraft Company and Caltech's pioneering Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Corporal was designed as a tactical nuclear missile for use in the event of Cold War hostilities in Western Europe. The first U.S. Army Corporal battalion was deployed in Europe in 1955. Six U.S
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PGM-19 Jupiter
The PGM-19 Jupiter
PGM-19 Jupiter
was the first nuclear tipped, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
(USAF). It was a liquid-propellant rocket using RP-1
RP-1
fuel and LOX oxidizer, with a single Rocketdyne
Rocketdyne
LR70-NA (model S-3D) rocket engine producing 667 kN of thrust. It was armed with the 1.1 megaton W49 nuclear warhead. The prime contractor was the Chrysler
Chrysler
Corporation. The Jupiter was originally designed by the US Army, which was looking for a highly accurate missile designed to strike high-value targets like bridges, railway yards, troop concentrations and the like. The Navy also expressed an interest in the design as an SLBM, but left the collaboration to work on their Polaris. Jupiter retained the short, squat shape intended to fit in naval submarines. The U.S
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Redstone (rocket)
The PGM-11 Redstone
PGM-11 Redstone
was the first large American ballistic missile. A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM), it was in active service with the United States Army
United States Army
in West Germany
West Germany
from June 1958 to June 1964 as part of NATO's Cold War
Cold War
defense of Western Europe. It was the first missile to carry a live nuclear warhead, in the 1958 Pacific Ocean weapons test, Hardtack Teak. Chief Engineer Wernher von Braun personally witnessed this historic launch and detonation.[1] Redstone was a direct descendant of the German V-2 rocket, developed by a team of predominantly German rocket engineers brought to the United States
United States
after World War II as part of Operation Paperclip
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US Air Force
The United States
United States
Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States
United States
Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States
United States
Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest[13] and most technologically advanced[14] air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control. The U.S
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United States Department Of Defense
742,000 (civilian) 1,300,000 (active duty military) 826,000 (National Guard and reserve): 2.87 million total[1] (2016)Annual budget US$530.1 billion (2010)[2] US$549.1 billion (2011)[3] US$553.0 billion (est. 2012) US$496.1 billion (2015)[4] US$534.3 billion (base FY2016)[4]Department executivesJim Mattis, Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, Deputy SecretaryChild agenciesU.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy U.S. Department of the Air ForceWebsite www.defense.govThe Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of DefenseThe Department of Defense (DoD,[5] USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces
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Charles Erwin Wilson
Charles Erwin Wilson
Charles Erwin Wilson
(July 18, 1890 – September 26, 1961) was an American engineer and businessman who served as United States Secretary of Defense from 1953 to 1957 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.[1] Known as "Engine Charlie",[2] he was previously the president and chief executive officer of General Motors. In the wake of the Korean War, he cut the defense budget significantly.Contents1 Early life and career 2 General Motors
General Motors
career 3 Secretary of Defense 4 Human experimentation 5 Later life and death 6 Nickname 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Wilson was born in Minerva, Ohio, the son of Thomas E
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Spy Satellite
A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellite
or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. The first generation type (i.e., Corona [1] [2] and Zenit) took photographs, then ejected canisters of photographic film which would descend to earth. Corona capsules were retrieved in mid-air as they floated down on parachutes. Later, spacecraft had digital imaging systems and downloaded the images via encrypted radio links. In the United States, most information available is on programs that existed up to 1972, as this information has been declassified due to its age
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Classified Information
Classified information
Classified information
is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people with the necessary security clearance and need to know, and mishandling of the material can incur criminal penalties. A formal security clearance is required to view or handle classified documents or to access classified data. The clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information are marked with one of several (hierarchical) levels of sensitivity—e.g. restricted, confidential, secret and top secret. The choice of level is based on an impact assessment; governments have their own criteria, which include how to determine the classification of an information asset, and rules on how to protect information classified at each level
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Army Ballistic Missile Agency
The Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
(ABMA) was formed to develop the US Army's first large ballistic missile. The agency was established at Redstone Arsenal
Redstone Arsenal
on 1 February 1956, and commanded by Major General John B. Medaris with Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
as technical director. The Redstone missile was the first major project assigned to ABMA. The Redstone was a direct descendant of the V-2
V-2
missile developed by the von Braun team in Germany during World War II
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Pegasus Satellite Program
The Pegasus
Pegasus
satellite program was a series of three American satellites launched in 1965 to study the frequency of micrometeorite impacts on spacecraft. All three Pegasus
Pegasus
satellites were launched by Saturn I
Saturn I
rockets, and remained connected with their upper stages. The Pegasus
Pegasus
satellite was named for the winged horse of Greek mythology and was first lofted into space by a NASA
NASA
Saturn I
Saturn I
rocket on February 16, 1965
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Heinz-Hermann Koelle
Heinz-Hermann Koelle (born 22 July 1925 Danzig, died 20 February 2011 in Berlin, Germany, 85 years old) was an aeronautical engineer who made the preliminary designs on the rocket that would emerge as the Saturn I. Closely associated with Wernher von Braun's team at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
(ABMA), he was a member of the launch crew on Explorer 1
Explorer 1
and later directed the Marshall Space Flight Center's involvement in Project Apollo. In 1965, he accepted the Chair of Space Technology at the Technical University of Berlin.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 ABMA and MSFC 3 Chair of Space Technology 4 Family 5 Works 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 Bibliography 6.3 Further readingEarly life[edit] Koelle was born in 1925 in the Free City of Danzig, son of a lieutenant-colonel in the police
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Kennedy Space Center
The John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Space Center (KSC, originally known as the NASA Launch Operations Center) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers. Since December 1968, the KSC has been NASA's primary launch center of human spaceflight. Launch operations for the Apollo, Skylab
Skylab
and Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39
Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39
and managed by KSC.[2] Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
(CCAFS)
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