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Saskatoon Berries
AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA, the SASKATOON, PACIFIC SERVICEBERRY, WESTERN SERVICEBERRY, ALDER-LEAF SHADBUSH, DWARF SHADBUSH, CHUCKLEY PEAR, or WESTERN JUNEBERRY, is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America
North America
from Alaska
Alaska
across most of western Canada
Canada
and in the western and north-central United States
United States
. Historically, it was also called PIGEON BERRY. It grows from sea level in the north of the range, up to 2,600 m (8,530 ft) elevation in California and 3,400 m (11,200 ft) in the Rocky Mountains, and is a common shrub in the forest understory. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Varieties * 4 Cultivation and uses * 5 Diseases and pests * 6 Nutrients * 7 Polyphenols * 8 References ETYMOLOGYThe name saskatoon derives from the Cree inanimate noun misâskwatômina (misâskwatômin NI sg, saskatoonberry, misâskwatômina NI pl saskatoonberries). The city of Saskatoon
Saskatoon
, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
, is named after this berry. The species name alnifolia is a feminine adjective . It is a compound of the Latin
Latin
word for "alder ", alnus, and the word for "leaf", folium. DESCRIPTIONIt is a deciduous shrub or small tree that most often grows to 1–8 m (3–26 ft), rarely to 10 m or 33 ft, in height
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Skagit Bay
SKAGIT BAY is a bay and strait located in the U.S. state of Washington . It is part of the Whidbey Island Basin of Puget Sound . The Skagit River
Skagit River
empties into Skagit Bay. To the south, Skagit Bay connects with the rest of Puget Sound via Saratoga Passage
Saratoga Passage
and Possession Sound . The boundary between Saratoga Passage
Saratoga Passage
and Skagit Bay
Bay
is between Polnell Point on Whidbey Island and Rocky Point on Camano Island . To the northwest, Skagit Bay
Bay
connects to the Strait
Strait
of Juan de Fuca via the narrow strait of Deception Pass
Deception Pass
. A third waterway, the Swinomish Channel, connects Skagit Bay
Bay
with Padilla Bay to the north. Skagit Bay
Bay
is bounded by Whidbey Island to the west, Fidalgo Island to the north, Camano Island to the south, and the mainland to the east. The mainland coast consists almost entirely of the Skagit River delta , including Fir Island , between the North Fork and South Fork distributaries of the Skagit River. The northern end of Skagit Bay
Bay
is called Similk Bay. Two islands at the northern end, Hope and Skagit islands, have been designated as marine state parks
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Washington (state)
WASHINGTON (/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/ ( listen )), officially the STATE OF WASHINGTON, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States . Named after George Washington , the first President of the United States, the state was made out of the western part of the Washington Territory , which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 in accordance with the Oregon Treaty in the settlement of the Oregon boundary dispute . It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Olympia is the state capital . Washington is sometimes referred to as WASHINGTON STATE to distinguish it from Washington, D.C. , the capital of the U.S., which is often shortened to Washington. Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles (184,827 sq km), and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Approximately 60 percent of Washington's residents live in the Seattle
Seattle
metropolitan area , the center of transportation, business, and industry along Puget Sound , an inlet of the Pacific Ocean consisting of numerous islands, deep fjords , and bays carved out by glaciers. The remainder of the state consists of deep temperate rainforests in the west, mountain ranges in the west, central, northeast and far southeast, and a semi-arid basin region in the east, central, and south, given over to intensive agriculture
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system
Linnaean system
has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous , became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
. The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN . The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Three different definitions of the rosids were used
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Rosales
Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae (oleaster / Russian olive family) Moraceae (mulberry family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Rosaceae (rose family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) SYNONYMS Rhamnales Rosanae Urticales ROSALES is an order of flowering plants . It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales . It contains about 7700 species , distributed into about 260 genera . Rosales comprise nine families , the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae . The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank . The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families. The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences , such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group . In their APG III system of plant classification , they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right
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Rosaceae
ROSACEAE, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants , including 4,828 known species in 91 genera. The name is derived from the type genus _Rosa _. Among the most species-rich genera are _ Alchemilla _ (270), _ Sorbus _ (260), _ Crataegus _ (260), _ Cotoneaster _ (260), _ Rubus _ (250), and _Prunus _ (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds) with about 200 species. However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains. The Rosaceae family includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen. They have a worldwide range, but are most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere. Several economically important products come from the Rosaceae, including many edible fruits (such as apples , pears , quinces , apricots , plums , cherries , peaches , raspberries , loquats , and strawberries ), almonds , and ornamental trees and shrubs (such as roses , meadowsweets , photinias , firethorns , rowans , and hawthorns )
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Amelanchier
About 20; see text AMELANCHIER (/æməˈlænʃɪər/ am-ə-LAN-sheer ), also known as SHADBUSH, SHADWOOD or SHADBLOW, SERVICEBERRY or SARVISBERRY, or just SARVIS, JUNEBERRY, SASKATOON, SUGARPLUM or WILD-PLUM, and CHUCKLEY PEAR is a genus of about 20 species of deciduous -leaved shrubs and small trees in the Rose
Rose
family ( Rosaceae ). Amelanchier
Amelanchier
is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere , growing primarily in early successional habitats . It is most diverse taxonomically in North America
North America
, especially in the northeastern United States
United States
and adjacent southeastern Canada
Canada
, and at least one species is native to every U.S. state except Hawaii
Hawaii
and to every Canadian province and territory. Two species also occur in Asia , and one in Europe
Europe
. The taxonomic classification of shadbushes has long perplexed botanists, horticulturalists, and others, as suggested by the range in number of species recognized in the genus, from 6 to 33, in two recent publications. A major source of complexity comes from the occurrence of hybridization , polyploidy , and apomixis (asexual seed production), making species difficult to characterize and identify
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Thomas Nuttall
THOMAS NUTTALL (5 January 1786 – 10 September 1859) was an English botanist and zoologist who lived and worked in America from 1808 until 1841. Nuttall was born in the village of Long Preston , near Settle in the West Riding of Yorkshire and spent some years as an apprentice printer in England. Soon after going to the United States he met Professor Benjamin Smith Barton in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. Barton encouraged his strong interest in natural history. CONTENTS * 1 The Genera of North American Plants * 2 Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada * 3 Named after him * 4 Named by him * 5 References * 6 External links THE GENERA OF NORTH AMERICAN PLANTSIn 1810 he travelled to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and in 1811 travelled on the Astor Expedition led by William Price Hunt on behalf of John Jacob Astor up the Missouri River . Nuttall was accompanied by the English botanist John Bradbury , who was collecting plants on behalf of Liverpool
Liverpool
botanical gardens. Nuttall and Bradbury left the party at the trading post with the Arikara Indians in South Dakota
South Dakota
, and continued farther upriver with Ramsay Crooks . In August they returned to the Arikara post and joined Manuel Lisa 's group on a return to St. Louis
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and vice versa). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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John Lindley
JOHN LINDLEY FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist . CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Career * 2.1 Horticultural Society of London
London
* 3 Middle years * 4 Later years * 5 Selected writings * 5.1 Taxonomic works * 5.2 Edited works * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links EARLY YEARSBorn in Catton , near Norwich
Norwich
, England, John Lindley
John Lindley
was one of four children of George and Mary Lindley. George Lindley was a nurseryman and pomologist and ran a commercial nursery garden. Although he had great horticultural knowledge, the undertaking was not profitable and George lived in a state of indebtedness. As a boy he would assist in the garden and also collected wild flowers he found growing in the Norfolk countryside. Lindley was educated at Norwich
Norwich
School . He would have liked to go to university or to buy a commission in the army but the family could not afford either. He became Belgian agent for a London
London
seed merchant in 1815. At this time Lindley became acquainted with the botanist William Jackson Hooker who allowed him to use his botanical library and who introduced him to Sir Joseph Banks who offered him employment as an assistant in his herbarium
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere . It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas . It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean , to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean , and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea . North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa , and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe . In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states , or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most notably the Caribbean ) are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period , via crossing the Bering land bridge approximately 40,000 to 17,000 years ago. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Archaic or Meso-Indian period). The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries
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