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Saskatoon Berries
Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia, the saskatoon, Pacific serviceberry, western serviceberry, alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, chuckley pear, or western juneberry,[1] is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America
North America
from Alaska
Alaska
across most of western Canada
Canada
and in the western and north-central United States
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada
Nevada
(/siˌɛrə nɪˈvædə, -ˈvɑːdə/, Spanish: [ˈsjera neˈβaða], snowy saw range[6]) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California
California
and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range
Carson Range
spur lies primarily in Nevada. The Sierra Nevada
Nevada
is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an almost continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America
South America
and Antarctica. The Sierra runs 400 miles (640 km) north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles (110 km) across east-to-west
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Petiole (botany)
In botany, the petiole (/ˈpiːtɪoʊl/) is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.[1]:87 The petiole is the transition between the stem and the leaf blade.[2]:171 Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile or epetiolate.Contents1 Description 2 Etymology 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)Harvested rhubarb petioles with leaves attachedThe petiole is a stalk that attaches a leaf to the plant stem. In petiolate leaves, the leaf stalk (petiole) may be long, as in the leaves of celery and rhubarb, short or completely absent, in which case the blade attaches directly to the stem and is said to be sessile
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Leaf Margin
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.[1] The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4]Diagram of a simple leaf.Apex Midvein (Primary vein) Secondary vein. Lamina. Leaf
Leaf
margin Petiole Bud StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf[1] but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus,[5] palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen
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Raceme
A raceme (/reɪˈsiːm/ or /rəˈsiːm/) is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.[1] In botany, an axis means a shoot, in this case one bearing the flowers. In indeterminate inflorescence-like racemes, the oldest flowers are borne towards the base and new flowers are produced as the shoot grows, with no predetermined growth limit.[2] A plant that flowers on a showy raceme may have this reflected in its scientific name, e.g. Cimicifuga racemosa
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Spring (season)
Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer. There are various technical definitions of spring, but local usage of the term varies according to local climate, cultures and customs. When it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, it is autumn in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and vice versa. At the spring, or vernal, equinox, days are approximately 12 hours long with day length increasing as the season progresses. Spring and "springtime" refer to the season, and also to ideas of rebirth, rejuvenation, renewal, resurrection and regrowth. Subtropical and tropical areas have climates better described in terms of other seasons, e.g. dry or wet, monsoonal or cyclonic
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Fruit
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, oranges, and strawberries
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Pome
In botany, a pome (derived from Latin
Latin
pōmum, meaning "fruit") is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae
Malinae
of the family Rosaceae.Contents1 Etymology 2 Morphology 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word pome entered English in the late 14th century, and referred to an apple or an apple-shaped object. It derived from the Old French word pome "apple" (12th century; modern French is pomme), which in turn derived from the Late Latin
Latin
or Vulgar Latin
Latin
word poma "apple", originally the plural of Latin
Latin
pomum "fruit", later "apple".[1] Morphology[edit] A pome is an accessory fruit composed of one or more carpels surrounded by accessory tissue
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Summer
Summer
Summer
is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, with day-length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice. The date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate, tradition and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice-versa.Contents1 Summer
Summer
timing 2 Weather 3 Holidays3.1 School breaks 3.2 Public holidays4 Activities 5 See also 6 References Summer
Summer
timing[edit] From an astronomical view, the equinoxes and solstices would be the middle of the respective seasons,[1][2] but sometimes astronomical summer is defined as starting at the solstice, the time of maximal insolation, or on the traditional date of June 21
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Variety (biology)
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in Latin: varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.[1] As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name. It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species.[2]Contents1 Example 2 Definitions 3 Other nomenclature uses 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyExample[edit] The pincushion cactus, Escobaria vivipara
Escobaria vivipara
(Nutt.) Buxb., is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada
Canada
to Mexico, and found throughout New Mexico
Mexico
below about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they intergrade. The variety Escobaria vivipara var
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Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
stretch more than 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges
Pacific Coast Ranges
and the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
and Sierra Nevada, which all lie further to the west. The Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
were initially formed from 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began to slide underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America
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Aboriginal People
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, usually having adopted substantial elements of a colonising culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend
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Clonal Colony
A clonal colony or genet is a group of genetically identical individuals, such as plants, fungi, or bacteria, that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a single ancestor. In plants, an individual in such a population is referred to as a ramet. In fungi, "individuals" typically refers to the visible fruiting bodies or mushrooms that develop from a common mycelium which, although spread over a large area, is otherwise hidden in the soil. Clonal colonies are common in many plant species. Although many plants reproduce sexually through the production of seed, reproduction occurs by underground stolons or rhizomes in some plants. Above ground, these plants appear to be distinct individuals, but underground they remain interconnected and are all clones of the same plant
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Pemmican
Pemmican
Pemmican
is a concentrated mixture of fat and protein used as a nutritious food. Historically, it was an element of First Nations cuisine in certain parts of America. The word comes from the Cree word pimîhkân, which itself is derived from the word pimî, "fat, grease".[1] It was invented by the native peoples of North America.[2][3] Pemmican
Pemmican
was widely adopted as a high-energy food by Europeans involved in the fur trade and later by Arctic
Arctic
and Antarctic
Antarctic
explorers, such as Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, Fridtjof Nansen, Robert Falcon Scott, and Roald Amundsen.Contents1 Ingredients 2 Traditional preparation 3 Serving 4 History 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksIngredients[edit] The specific ingredients used for pemmican were usually whatever was available. The meat was often bison, deer, elk, or moose
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