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Sargramostim
Sargramostim
Sargramostim
(tradename Leukine) is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that functions as an immunostimulator.Contents1 Medical uses 2 Contraindications 3 Adverse effects 4 Pharmacology 5 Chemistry 6 History 7 ReferencesMedical uses[edit] Sargramostim
Sargramostim
is primarily used for myeloid reconstitution after autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. It is also used to treat neutropenia induced by chemotherapy during the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia
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American Society Of Health-System Pharmacists
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Pharmacists
(ASHP) is a professional organization representing the interests of pharmacists who practice in hospitals, health maintenance organizations, long-term care facilities, home care, and other components of health care. Previously it was known as the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. As of 2018[update], ASHP has 45,000 members and a staff of more than 200.Contents1 History 2 Aim 3 Publications 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] By 1939 a subsection of hospital pharmacists was formed in the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA), and for the first time, hospital pharmacists had a voice in a national organization. In 1942, hospital pharmacists established the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, affiliated with APhA
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Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
(NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.[1] Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and tiredness.[1] Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain, or itchiness.[1] Some forms are slow growing while others are fast growing.[1] Lymphomas are types of cancer that develop from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.[2] Risk factors include poor immune function, autoimmune diseases,
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Cellular Differentiation
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.[2][3] Most commonly the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Some differentiation occurs in response to antigen exposure. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of epigenetics. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself
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Megakaryocyte
A megakaryocyte (mega- + karyo- + -cyte, "large-nucleus cell") is a large bone marrow cell with a lobulated nucleus responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting. Megakaryocytes usually account for 1 out of 10,000 bone marrow cells in normal people, but can increase in number nearly 10-fold during the course of certain diseases.[1] Owing to variations in combining forms and spelling, synonyms include megalokaryocyte and megacaryocyte.Contents1 Structure 2 Development 3 Function3.1 Platelet
Platelet
release 3.2 Effects of cytokines 3.3 Thrombopoietin4 Clinical significance4.1 Essential thrombocytosis 4.2 Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia5 History 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] In general, megakaryocytes are 10 to 15 times larger than a typical red blood cell, averaging 50–100 μm in diameter
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Erythroid Progenitor Cells
Hematopoietic stem cells
Hematopoietic stem cells
(HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells. This process is called haematopoiesis.[1] This process occurs in the red bone marrow, in the core of most bones. In embryonic development, the red bone marrow is derived from the layer of the embryo called the mesoderm. Hematopoiesis is the process by which all mature blood cells are produced. It must balance enormous production needs (more than 500 billion blood cells are produced every day) with the need to precisely regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. In vertebrates, the vast majority of hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and is derived from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. HSCs give rise to both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages of blood cells
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Glycoprotein
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are also often glycosylated. Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell–cell interactions
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Molecular Weight
Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available.Contents1 Definitions 2 Determination2.1 Mass spectrometry 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods 2.3 Static light scattering3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition[1] is equal to 12
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Industrial Fermentation
Industrial fermentation
Industrial fermentation
is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans. Fermented products have applications as food as well as in general industry. Some commodity chemicals, such as acetic acid, citric acid, and ethanol are made by fermentation.[1] The rate of fermentation depends on the concentration of microorganisms, cells, cellular components, and enzymes as well as temperature, pH[2] and for aerobic fermentation[3] oxygen. Product recovery frequently involves the concentration of the dilute solution. Nearly all commercially produced enzymes, such as lipase, invertase and rennet, are made by fermentation with genetically modified microbes. In some cases, production of biomass itself is the objective, as in the case of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for cheesemaking
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Immunex
Amgen Inc. (formerly Applied Molecular Genetics Inc.[2][3]) is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. Located in the Conejo Valley, Amgen is the world's largest independent biotechnology firm. In 2013, the company's largest selling product lines were Neulasta/Neupogen, two closely related drugs used to prevent infections in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy; and Enbrel, a tumor necrosis factor blocker used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases
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Goiânia Accident
The Goiânia
Goiânia
accident was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on September 13, 1987, at Goiânia, in the Brazilian state of Goiás, after a forgotten radiotherapy source was taken from an abandoned hospital site in the city. It was subsequently handled by many people, resulting in four deaths. About 112,000 people were examined for radioactive contamination and 249 were found to have significant levels of radioactive material in or on their bodies.[1][2] In the cleanup operation, topsoil had to be removed from several sites, and several houses were demolished. All the objects from within those houses were removed and examined
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Bone Marrow Transplantation
Hematopoietic stem cell
Hematopoietic stem cell
transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.[1][2] It may be autologous (the patient's own stem cells are used), allogeneic (the stem cells come from a donor) or syngeneic (from an identical twin).[1][2] It is most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow, such as multiple myeloma or leukemia.[2] In these cases, the recipient's immune system is usually destroyed with radiation or chemotherapy before the transplantation. Infection
Infection
and graft-versus-host disease are major complications of allogeneic HSCT.[2] Hematopoietic stem cell
Hematopoietic stem cell
transplantation remains a dangerous procedure with many possible complications; it is reserved for patients with life-threatening diseases
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Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.[1] Symptoms may include feeling tired, pale skin color, fever, easy bleeding or bruising, enlarged lymph nodes, or bone pain.[1] As an acute leukemia, ALL progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.[10] Most cases occur due to an unknown reason.[2] Genetic risk factors may include Down syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, or neurofibromatosis type 1.[1] Environment risk factors may include significant radiation exposure or prior chemotherapy.[1] Evidence regarding electromagnetic fields or pesticides is unclear.[4][6] Some hypothesize that an abnormal immune response to a common infection may be a trigger.[4] The underlying mechanism involves multiple genetic mutations that results in rapid cell division.[2] The excessive immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow interfere with the production of ne
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Leukocytosis
Leukocytosis
Leukocytosis
is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.[1][2] It is frequently a sign of an inflammatory response,[3] most commonly the result of infection, but may also occur following certain parasitic infections or bone tumors as well as leukemia. It may also occur after strenuous exercise, convulsions such as epilepsy, emotional stress, pregnancy and labor, anesthesia, and epinephrine administration.[1] There are five principle types of leukocytosis:[4] Neutrophilia
Neutrophilia
(the most common form)[5] Lymphocytosis Monocytosis Eosinophilia BasophiliaThis increase in leukocyte (primarily neutrophils) is usually accompanied by a "left upper shift" in the ratio of immature to mature neutrophils and macrophages
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Hodgkin's Disease
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Hodgkin's lymphoma
(HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.[8] Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, and weight loss.[2] Often there will be non-painful enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, under the arm, or in the groin.[2] Those affected may feel tired or be itchy.[2] About half of cases of
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Mycosis
Mycosis
Mycosis
(plural: mycoses) is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.[1] Mycoses are common and a variety of environmental and physiological conditions can contribute to the development of fungal diseases
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