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Sarah Ulmer
SARAH ELIZABETH ULMER ONZM (born 14 March 1976) is a former Olympic cyclist. She is the first New Zealander to win an Olympic cycling gold medal, which she won in the 3km individual pursuit at the 2004 Athens Olympics setting a world record. After the 2004 Olympics, she held the Olympic, Commonwealth and World Championship Pursuit titles, and the records for those events. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Individual pursuit races * 1.2 Other races * 1.3 Other information * 2 Palmarès * 3 Photo gallery * 4 References BIOGRAPHYUlmer was born in Auckland
Auckland
, where she studied at the Diocesan School for Girls . Her grandfather Ron Ulmer was a track cyclist for New Zealand at the 1938 British Empire Games . Her father Gary was a national road and track champion. INDIVIDUAL PURSUIT RACESIn 1994 she won the World Junior Championship and placed second at the 1994 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in Canada with a time of 3 minutes 51 seconds. At the 1996 Atlanta Olympics she was seventh after qualifying 6th with 3m 43s. At the 1998 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
she won the gold medal with 3m 41.7s. At the 2000 Sydney Olympics she qualified 4th with 3m 36.8s and came 4th after losing the ride off for third by 0.08 of a second
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Women's Challenge
The WOMEN\'S CHALLENGE bicycle race (originally known as the Ore-Ida Women's Challenge, after its leading sponsor of " Ore-Ida " brand frozen potato products) was held annually in the western United States in southern Idaho
Idaho
, beginning in 1984 until its demise in 2002. Later primary sponsors were PowerBar and Hewlett-Packard . During much of its 19-year history, it was the most prestigious women's cycle race in North America
North America
. From 1995, when it first obtained sanctioning from the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the international governing body for cycling, it developed into one of the strongest races in the world, attracting numerous World and Olympic Champions. Prior to that, in 1990, the UCI had refused to sanction the event, citing as their reason the "excessive climbing, stage distances, number of stages, and duration of event." The race that year was 17 stages and 663 miles (1,067 km), won by Inga Thompson . The following year (1991) marked the debut on the international scene of a team representing Lithuania
Lithuania
, which had just recently declared its independence and was still awaiting recognition as a country. Professionals were allowed to compete beginning in 1993. The race, which was run almost entirely by volunteers, set a very high standard in terms of technical administration and conduct of the race itself
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Auckland
AUCKLAND (/ˈɔːklənd/ _AWK-lənd_ ) is a city in New Zealand
New Zealand
's North Island . With an urban population of 1,495,000, Auckland
Auckland
is the most populous urban area in the country. It is located in the Auckland Region —the area governed by Auckland Council —which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf , resulting in a total population of 1,614,300. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland
Auckland
is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. The Māori language name for Auckland
Auckland
is _Tāmaki_ or _Tāmaki-makau-rau_, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. It has also been called _Ākarana_, the Māori pronunciation of the English name. The Auckland
Auckland
urban area (as defined by Statistics New Zealand
New Zealand
) ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the northwest, and Runciman in the south. Auckland
Auckland
lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, and the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ (_ listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA _ ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean . The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (or _Te Ika-a-Māui_), and the South Island (or _Te Waipounamu_)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps , owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington , while its most populous city is Auckland . Sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture . In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand
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Track Cycling
TRACK CYCLING is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Main centres * 3 Race formats * 3.1 Sprint * 3.2 Endurance * 4 Major competitive events * 4.1 Olympic Games * 4.2 World Championships * 4.3 World Cup * 4.4 Ranking * 4.5 National series * 5 Riding position * 6 Track records * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY An outdoor track race in Paris in 1908 featuring Marshall Taylor , the first African-American cyclist to become world champion Track cycling has been around since at least 1870. When cycling was in its infancy, wooden indoor tracks were laid which resemble those of modern velodromes, consisting of two straights and slightly banked turns. One appeal of indoor track racing was that spectators could be easily controlled, and hence an entrance fee could be charged, making track racing a lucrative sport. Early track races attracted crowds of up to 2000 people. Indoor tracks also enabled year-round cycling for the first time. The main early centers for track racing in Britain were Birmingham, Sheffield, Liverpool, Manchester and London
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Olympic Games
The modern OLYMPIC GAMES or OLYMPICS (French : _Jeux olympiques_ ) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions . The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years , with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games , which were held in Olympia, Greece , from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement , with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements
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2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES (Modern Greek : Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004, _Therinoí Olympiakoí Agó̱nes 2004_ ), officially known as the GAMES OF THE XXVIII OLYMPIAD and commonly known as ATHENS 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens
Athens
, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto _Welcome Home._ 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries. There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports . Athens
Athens
2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee
National Olympic Committee
were in attendance. 2004 also marked the return of the games to the city where they began. A new medal obverse was introduced at these Games, replacing the design by Giuseppe Cassioli that had been used since the 1928 Games . This rectified the long lasting mistake of using a depiction of the Roman Colosseum rather than a Greek venue. The new design features the Panathenaic Stadium . The 2004 summer games were hailed as "unforgettable, dream games" by IOC
IOC
President Jacques Rogge, and left Athens
Athens
with a significantly improved infrastructure, including a new airport, ring road, and subway system
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Cycling At The 2004 Summer Olympics – Women's Individual Pursuit
The WOMEN\'S INDIVIDUAL PURSUIT at the 2004 Summer Olympics (Cycling ) was an event that consisted of matches between two cyclists. The riders would start at opposite ends of the track. They had 12 laps (3 kilometres) in which to catch the other cyclist. If neither was caught before one had gone 12 laps, the times for the distance were used to determine the victor. In the twelve matches of the 2004 event, one cyclist was lapped. CONTENTS* 1 Records * 1.1 Qualifying round * 1.2 First round * 1.3 Finals * 2 Final classification * 3 References * 4 External links RECORDS World Record Sarah Ulmer (NZL) Auckland, New Zealand 3:30.604 May 27, 2004 Olympic Record Leontien Zijlaard (NED) Sydney, Australia 3:30.816 September 17, 2000Ulmer held the world record coming into this event, which she set at the world championships in Melbourne
Melbourne
in May 2004. She reduced the world record by more than 6 seconds during this event. All three of the medallists in Athens beat the previous world record. WR denotes world record Q denotes qualification for next round QUALIFYING ROUNDThe riders raced against each other in matches of two. Qualification for the next round was not based on who won those matches, however. The cyclists with the eight fastest times advanced, regardless of whether they won or lost their match
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Commonwealth Games
The COMMONWEALTH GAMES (known as the BRITISH EMPIRE GAMES from 1930–1950, the BRITISH EMPIRE AND COMMONWEALTH GAMES from 1954–1966, and BRITISH COMMONWEALTH GAMES from 1970–1974) is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations . The event was first held in 1930, and, with the exception of 1942 and 1946, which were cancelled due to World War II , has taken place every four years since then. The most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Glasgow , Scotland in 2014. The games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. A host city is selected for each edition. 18 cities in seven countries have hosted the event. Apart from many Olympic sports , the games also include some sports that are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries, such as lawn bowls and netball . Although there are 52 members of the Commonwealth of Nations , 70 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom England , Scotland , Wales , and Northern Ireland —also send separate teams. Nine nations have hosted the Commonwealth Games
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2002 Commonwealth Games
The 2002 COMMONWEALTH GAMES, officially the XVII COMMONWEALTH GAMES were held in Manchester
Manchester
, England, from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in the United Kingdom to coincide with the Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
of Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, head of the Commonwealth , and Manchester
Manchester
was selected for the 2002 Games ahead of London
London
. The XVII Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
was, prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
, the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in the UK, eclipsing the London
London
1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
in numbers of teams and athletes participating. In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were the largest Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports. The Games were considered a success for the host city, providing an event to display how Manchester
Manchester
has changed following the 1996 bombing . The Games formed the catalyst for the widespread regeneration and heavy development of Manchester, and bolstered its reputation as a European and global city internationally
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1998 Commonwealth Games
The 1998 COMMONWEALTH GAMES (Malay : Sukan Komanwel 1998), officially known as the XVI COMMONWEALTH GAMES (Malay: Sukan Komanwel ke-16), was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia from 11 to 21 September 1998 with 214 events in 15 sports featured in the games. The 1998 games were the first held in an Asian country and the last Commonwealth Games of the 20th century. This was also the first time the games took place in a nation with a head of state other than the Head of the Commonwealth , and the first time the games were held in a non-English speaking nation. 3638 athletes from 69 Commonwealth member nations participated at the games with 34 of them collected medals. For the first time ever, the games included team sports . The other bid from the 1998 games came from Adelaide in Australia. Malaysia is the eighth nation to host the Commonwealth Games after Canada, England, Australia, New Zealand, Wales, Jamaica and Scotland. The games was opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohammad and closed by Head of the Commonwealth, Elizabeth II at the Bukit Jalil National Stadium. The final medal tally was led by Australia, followed by Canada, England and host Malaysia. Several games records were broken during the games
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1994 Commonwealth Games
The 1994 COMMONWEALTH GAMES were held in Victoria , in the province of British Columbia
British Columbia
in Canada, from 18 to 28 August 1994. The XV Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
(French : XV Jeux du Commonwealth) marked South Africa
South Africa
's return to the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
following the apartheid era, and over 30 years since the country last competed in the Games in 1958 . It was also Hong Kong
Hong Kong
's last appearance at the games before the transfer of sovereignty from Britain to China
China
. The official mascot of the Games was an anthropomorphic killer whale named "Klee Wyck". "Klee Wyck", meaning "the laughing one", was a nickname given to Canadian painter and sculptor Emily Carr by the Ucluelet First Nation . Ten types of sports were featured at the Victoria Games: athletics, aquatics , badminton, boxing , cycling, gymnastics, lawn bowls , shooting, weightlifting , and wrestling
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UCI Track World Championships
The UCI TRACK CYCLING WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS are the set of world championship events for the various disciplines and distances in track cycling . They are regulated by the Union Cycliste Internationale . Before 1900, they were administered by the UCI's predecessor, the International Cycling Association (ICA). Current events include: time trial , keirin , individual pursuit , team pursuit , points race , scratch race , sprint , team sprint , omnium and Madison , also known as "The American". Women's events are generally shorter than men's. Events which are no longer held include the kilometer time trial (men), the 500 meter time trial (women), motor paced events, and tandem events. World championships were first held in 1893, in Chicago , under the ICA. They were for amateurs. Separate professional races were held from 1895, in Cologne . Amateurs and professionals competed in separate events until 1993, after which they raced together in "open" races. Championships are open to riders selected by their national cycling association. They compete in the colours of their country. The winner of ICA championships received a gold medal. The UCI awards a gold medal and a rainbow jersey to the winner. Silver and bronze medals are awarded to the second and third place contestants. World champions wear their rainbow jersey until the following year's championship, but they may wear it only in the type of event in which they won it
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2004 Uci Track Cycling World Championships
In sport , a CHAMPIONSHIP is a competition in which the aim is to decide which individual or team is the champion . CONTENTS* 1 Championship
Championship
systems * 1.1 Title match system * 1.2 Tournament system * 1.3 League system * 1.4 Playoff system * 2 English football * 3 Usage in professional wrestling * 4 See also * 5 The Championship
Championship
CHAMPIONSHIP SYSTEMSVarious forms of competition can be referred to by the term championship. TITLE MATCH SYSTEMIn this system, a competitor has to challenge the current champion to win the championship. A competitor can challenge the current champion after defeating other challengers. This form of championship is used in wrestling , boxing , mixed martial arts and other combat sports. TOURNAMENT SYSTEMThe term championships (in the plural) is often used to refer to tournament competitions , either using a knockout format , such as at Wimbledon and other championships in tennis , or a mixed format with a group stage followed by knockout rounds, such as used in the European Football Championships . A variation of the knockout format is the "best-of-X" or series format where two teams face each other for a specified number of times until one team wins the majority of specified games, most of the time the remaining games are not played anymore; only then is the losing team eliminated from contention and the winning team advances to the next level
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1999 UCI Track Cycling World Championships
The 1999 UCI TRACK CYCLING WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS were the World Championship for track cycling . They took place in Berlin
Berlin
, Germany from October 20 to October 24, 1999. Twelve events were contested, eight for the men and four for the women. France
France
dominated most of the events, with Félicia Ballanger and Marion Clignet making a clean sweep of the women's championships by taking two golds each, France won over half of the gold medals on offer
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Officer Of The New Zealand Order Of Merit
The NEW ZEALAND ORDER OF MERIT is an order of chivalry in New Zealand\'s honours system . It was established by royal warrant on 30 May 1996 by Elizabeth II , Queen of New Zealand
New Zealand
, "for those persons who in any field of endeavour, have rendered meritorious service to the Crown and nation or who have become distinguished by their eminence, talents, contributions or other merits", to recognise outstanding service to the Crown and people of New Zealand
New Zealand
in a civil or military capacity. In the order of precedence , the New Zealand
New Zealand
Order of Merit ranks immediately after the Order of New Zealand
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