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Saprophyte
SAPROTROPHIC NUTRITION /sæprəˈtrɒfɪk, -proʊ-/ or LYSOTROPHIC NUTRITION is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed organic matter. It occurs in saprotrophs and heterotrophs , and is most often associated with fungi (for example Mucor
Mucor
) and soil bacteria . Saprotrophic microscopic fungi are sometimes called SAPROBES; saprotrophic plants or bacterial flora are called SAPROPHYTES (sapro- + -phyte, "rotten material" + "plant"). The process is most often facilitated through the active transport of such materials through endocytosis within the internal mycelium and its constituent hyphae
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Maltose
MALTOSE (/ˈmɔːltoʊs/ or /ˈmɔːltoʊz/ ), also known as MALTOBIOSE or MALT SUGAR, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond , formed from a condensation reaction . The isomer isomaltose has two glucose molecules linked through an α(1→6) bond. Maltose
Maltose
is the second member of an important biochemical series of glucose chains. Maltose
Maltose
is the disaccharide produced when amylase breaks down starch . It is found in germinating seeds as they break down their starch stores to use for food, which is why it was named after malt . It is also produced when glucose is caramelized . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Structure and nomenclature * 3 Properties * 4 Intolerance * 5 Sources and absorption * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Maltose
Maltose
was discovered by Irish chemist and brewer Cornelius O\'Sullivan in 1872
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Glucose
GLUCOSE is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C 6H 12O 6. Glucose
Glucose
circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar . It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration . Glucose
Glucose
is stored as a polymer , in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen . With 6 carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose , a subcategory of the monosaccharides . D- Glucose
Glucose
is one of the 16 aldohexose stereoisomers . The D-isomer , D-glucose , also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose , does not. Glucose
Glucose
can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar, cane sugar, maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc
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Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Carbon Storage
SOIL CARBON STORAGE is an important function of terrestrial ecosystems . Soil contains more carbon than plants and the atmosphere combined. Understanding what maintains the soil carbon pool is important to understand the current distribution of carbon on Earth, and how it will respond to environmental change. While much research has been done on how plants, free-living microbial decomposers , and soil minerals affect this pool of carbon, it is recently coming to light that MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI —symbiotic fungi that associate with roots of almost all living plants—may play an important role in maintaining this pool as well. Measurements of plant carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi have been estimated to be 5-20% of total plant carbon uptake, and in some ecosystems the biomass of mycorrhizal fungi can be comparable to the biomass of fine roots
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Ion
An ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is a an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons ). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called molecular ions or polyatomic ions . In the case of physical ionization of a medium such as a gas, what are known as "ion pairs" are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion
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PH
In chemistry , PH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/ ) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution . It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration , measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions . More precisely it is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic . Pure water is neutral, at pH 7, being neither an acid nor a base. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. pH measurements are important in agronomy , medicine , biology , chemistry , agriculture , forestry , food science , environmental science , oceanography , civil engineering , chemical engineering , nutrition , water treatment and water purification , as well as many other applications
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Lipase
A LIPASE (/ˈlaɪpeɪs/ , /ˈlɪpeɪs/ , /-peɪz/ ) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids ). Lipases are a subclass of the esterases . Lipases perform essential roles in the digestion , transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides , fats , oils ) in most, if not all, living organisms . Genes
Genes
encoding lipases are even present in certain viruses . Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of a lipid substrate (A1, A2 or A3)(small intestine). For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system , converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and two fatty acids . Several other types of lipase activities exist in nature, such as phospholipases and sphingomyelinases , however these are usually treated separately from "conventional" lipases
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Starch
STARCH or AMYLUM is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds . This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes , wheat , maize (corn), rice , and cassava . Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin . Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen
Glycogen
, the glucose store of animals, is a more highly branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting , and fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer , whisky and biofuel
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Amylase
An AMYLASE (/ˈæmᵻleɪs/ ) is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars . Amylase
Amylase
is present in the saliva of humans and some other mammals, where it begins the chemical process of digestion . Foods that contain large amounts of starch but little sugar, such as rice and potatoes , may acquire a slightly sweet taste as they are chewed because amylase degrades some of their starch into sugar. The pancreas and salivary gland make amylase (alpha amylase ) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Plants and some bacteria also produce amylase. As diastase , amylase was the first enzyme to be discovered and isolated (by Anselme Payen
Anselme Payen
in 1833). Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters. All amylases are glycoside hydrolases and act on α-1,4-glycosidic bonds
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Chemoautotroph
CHEMOTROPHS are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments. These molecules can be organic (chemoorganotrophs ) or inorganic (chemolithotrophs ). The chemotroph designation is in contrast to phototrophs , which utilize solar energy. Chemotrophs can be either autotrophic or heterotrophic . Chemotrophs are commonly found in ocean floors where sunlight cannot reach them because they are not dependent on solar energy. Ocean floors often contain underwater volcanos that can provide heat to substitute sunlight for warmth. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Chemoautotroph * 3 Chemoheterotroph * 4 Iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria * 5 Flowchart * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References HISTORYOriginally used with a different meaning, the term took its current definition after Lwoff and collaborators (1946)
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Holozoic Nutrition
HOLOZOIC NUTRITION (Greek: holo-whole ; zoikos-of animals) is a type of heterotrophic nutrition that is characterized by the internalization (ingestion ) and internal processing of gaseous, liquids or solid food particles. Protozoa , such as amoebas , and most of the free living animals, such as humans, exhibit this type of nutrition. In Holozoic nutrition the energy and organic building blocks are obtained by ingesting and then digesting other organisms or pieces of other organisms, including blood and decaying organic matter. This contrasts with holophytic nutrition , in which energy and organic building blocks are obtained through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis , and with saprozoic nutrition, in which digestive enzymes are released externally and the resulting monomers (small organic molecules) are absorbed directly from the environment
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OxfordDictionaries.com
OXFORDDICTIONARIES.COM or OXFORD DICTIONARIES ONLINE (ODO) is a website produced by the Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
(OUP) publishing house , a department of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other things. It includes the Oxford Dictionary
Dictionary
of English , New Oxford American Dictionary
Dictionary
, Oxford Thesaurus of English, Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus and grammar and usage resources. It is updated every three months. REFERENCES * ^ "The OED and Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 December 2014. * ^ "Oxford Dictionaries content help". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 November 2014. * ^ Harrison, Emma (19 June 2014). "Oxford dictionaries: Demise of the printed editions?". BBC News
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Saprotrophic Nutrition
SAPROTROPHIC NUTRITION /sæprəˈtrɒfɪk, -proʊ-/ or LYSOTROPHIC NUTRITION is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed organic matter. It occurs in saprotrophs and heterotrophs , and is most often associated with fungi (for example Mucor
Mucor
) and soil bacteria . Saprotrophic microscopic fungi are sometimes called SAPROBES; saprotrophic plants or bacterial flora are called SAPROPHYTES (sapro- + -phyte, "rotten material" + "plant"). The process is most often facilitated through the active transport of such materials through endocytosis within the internal mycelium and its constituent hyphae
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Wood-decay Fungus
A WOOD-DECAY FUNGUS is any species of fungus that digests moist wood , causing it to rot . Some species of wood-decay fungi attack dead wood, such as brown rot, and some, such as Armillaria (honey fungus), are parasitic and colonize living trees. Fungi that not only grow on wood but actually cause it to decay, are called LIGNICOLOUS fungi. Various lignicolous fungi consume wood in various ways; for example, some attack the carbohydrates in wood and some others decay lignin . The rate of decay of wooden materials in various climates can be estimated by empirical models. Wood-decay fungi can be classified according to the type of decay that they cause. The best-known types are BROWN ROT, SOFT ROT, and WHITE ROT. Each produce different enzymes, can degrade different plant materials, and can colonise different environmental niches. The residual products of decomposition from fungal action have variable pH, solubility and redox potentials
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Photosynthesis
PHOTOSYNTHESIS is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation ). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules , such as sugars , which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together". In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants , most algae , and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs . Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth
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