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Sant Pere De Camprodon
SANT PERE DE CAMPRODON is a Benedictine monastery in Camprodon
Camprodon
, Ripollès
Ripollès
, Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain. It was declared a Bien de Interés Cultural landmark in 1931. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Architecture and fittings * 3 Abbots * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYIn 1932 the remains of the old monastery, which were in ruins, were demolished. Only the old monastery church has been preserved. ARCHITECTURE AND FITTINGS Tower Arches Capital Door detailing Statuary Commemorative plaque Interior view of the monastery church Grounds It was built in the mid-12th century with the only ornamentation being that of the porch, decorated with columns and capitals. Its plan is a Latin cross, with four square apses. The largest of these has the same width as the nave while remaining open to the sides of the transept. The roof of the nave is a pointed arch supported on arches. On the cross plan, the transept rises to the dome which over which exists a bell tower, two stories high. The dome is covered on the outside by an octagonal lantern. The interior contains the remains of the tombs of some of the abbots. In the diocesan museum of Girona are also preserved some of the ancient capitals from the cloister
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Benedictine
The ORDER OF SAINT BENEDICT (OSB; Latin
Latin
: _Ordo Sancti Benedicti_), also known – in reference to the colour of its members' habits – as the BLACK MONKS, is a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict . Each community (monastery , priory or abbey ) within the order maintains its own autonomy, while the order itself represents their mutual interests. The terms "Order of Saint Benedict" and "Benedictine Order" are, however, also used to refer to _all_ Benedictine communities collectively, sometimes giving the incorrect impression that there exists a generalate or motherhouse with jurisdiction over them. Internationally, the order is governed by the Benedictine Confederation , a body, established in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII 's Brief _Summum semper_, whose head is known as the Abbot
Abbot
Primate . Individuals whose communities are members of the order generally add the initials "OSB" after their names
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Monastery
A MONASTERY is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics , monks or nuns , whether living in communities or alone (hermits ). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, and may also serve as an oratory . Monasteries vary greatly in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, dormitory , cloister , refectory , library , balneary and infirmary . Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may also include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community. These may include a hospice , a school and a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn , a forge or a brewery . In English usage, the term _monastery_ is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, _convent _ tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics (nuns), particularly communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters . Historically, a convent denoted a house of friars (reflecting the Latin), now more commonly called a _friary_
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Camprodon
CAMPRODON (Catalan pronunciation: , locally ; from Camp Rodó "Round Field", ultimately from Latin
Latin
Campus Rotundus) is a small town in the comarca of Ripollès
Ripollès
in Girona , Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain, located in the Pyrenees , near the French border. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable people * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe settlement of Camprodon
Camprodon
was in 1118, when Ramon Berenguer III allowed the building of a market near the monastery of Sant Pere de Camprodon
Camprodon
, which is located in the present-day town. In 1252, Camprodon
Camprodon
was granted the title of royal city and left the jurisdiction of the abbot of Sant Pere. Sant Pere de Camprodon
Sant Pere de Camprodon
The city celebrates the feast day of Sant Patllari (Palladius of Embrun ), and the church of Santa Maria de Camprodon
Camprodon
claims his relics , which lie in a 14th-century reliquary (arqueta de Sant Patllari). The epicentre of the Catalan earthquake of 1428 that killed hundreds of people was near Camprodon. The earthquake was related to the active Amer -Brugent fault system which lies to the south-east of Camprodon
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Ripollès
RIPOLLèS (Catalan pronunciation: ) is a comarca (county) in Catalonia , Spain. It is located in the Ribes and Camprodon river valleys. In 2001, its population was 25,744, about 40% of whom lived in the capital, Ripoll . Ripollès borders the comarques of Baixa Cerdanya , Berguedà , Osona , Garrotxa , and – across the border in France – Vallespir , Conflent , and Alta Cerdanya
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Catalonia
CATALONIA (Catalan : _Catalunya_, Occitan : _Catalonha_, Spanish : _Cataluña_) is an autonomous community of Spain
Spain
, located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula . It is designated as a _nationality _ by its Statute of Autonomy . Catalonia
Catalonia
consists of four provinces : Barcelona
Barcelona
, Girona , Lleida
Lleida
, and Tarragona
Tarragona
. The capital and largest city is Barcelona
Barcelona
, the second-most populated municipality in Spain
Spain
and the core of the seventh-most populous urban area in the European Union
European Union
. Catalonia
Catalonia
comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia
Catalonia
(with the remainder Roussillon
Roussillon
now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales ). It is bordered by France
France
and Andorra
Andorra
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south
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Bien De Interés Cultural
A BIEN DE INTERéS CULTURAL is a category of the heritage register in Spain. The term is also used in Venezuela, and other Spanish speaking countries. The term literally means a "Good of Cultural Interest" (a "good " in the economic sense), although a better translation could be "Heritage of Cultural Interest", as Spain protects not only material heritage, like monuments or movable works of art, but also intangible cultural heritage , such as the Silbo Gomero language . Some Bienes enjoy international protection as World Heritage Sites or Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Sub-categories * 3 Regional variants * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYIn Spain the category of Bien de Interés Cultural
Bien de Interés Cultural
dates from 1985 when it replaced the former heritage category of Monumento nacional (national monument) in order to extend protection to a wider range of cultural property . Monumentos are now identified as one of the sub-categories of Bien de Interés Cultural. SUB-CATEGORIES Jardín histórico: Royal Botanical Garden, Madrid The movable heritage designated as Bienes de Interes Cultural includes archeological artefacts, archives and large works of art. Such protected objects may well be kept in a building which is itself a BIC
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Capital (architecture)
In architecture the CAPITAL (from the Latin
Latin
caput, or "head") or CHAPITER forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster ). It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. The capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus , joins the usually square abacus and the usually circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order ; concave, as in the inverted bell of the Corinthian order ; or scrolling out, as in the Ionic order
Ionic order
. These form the three principal types on which all capitals are based. The Composite order (illustration, right), established in the 16th century on a hint from the Arch of Titus
Arch of Titus
, adds Ionic volutes to Corinthian acanthus leaves. From the highly visible position it occupies in all colonnaded monumental buildings, the capital is often selected for ornamentation; and is often the clearest indicator of the architectural order . The treatment of its detail may be an indication of the building's date
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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International Standard Book Number (identifier)
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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Order Of Saint Benedict
The ORDER OF SAINT BENEDICT (OSB; Latin : _Ordo Sancti Benedicti_), also known – in reference to the colour of its members' habits – as the BLACK MONKS, is a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict . Each community (monastery , priory or abbey ) within the order maintains its own autonomy, while the order itself represents their mutual interests. The terms "Order of Saint Benedict" and "Benedictine Order" are, however, also used to refer to _all_ Benedictine communities collectively, sometimes giving the incorrect impression that there exists a generalate or motherhouse with jurisdiction over them. Internationally, the order is governed by the Benedictine Confederation , a body, established in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII 's Brief _Summum semper_, whose head is known as the Abbot Primate . Individuals whose communities are members of the order generally add the initials "OSB" after their names
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Christian Monasticism
CHRISTIAN MONASTICISM is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship. It began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church , modeled upon scriptural examples and ideals, including those in the Old Testament , but not mandated as an institution in the scriptures. It has come to be regulated by religious rules (e.g. the Rule of Saint Augustine , Anthony the Great , St Pachomius , the Rule of St Basil , the Rule of St Benedict ,) and, in modern times, the Canon law of the respective Christian denominations that have forms of monastic living. Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms monks (men) and nuns (women). The word _monk_ originated from the Greek _monachos_ "monk", itself from _monos_ meaning "alone". Monks did not live in monasteries at first, rather, they began by living alone, as the word _monos_ might suggest. As more people took on the lives of monks, living alone in the wilderness, they started to come together and model themselves after the original monks nearby. Quickly, the monks formed communities to further their ability to observe an ascetic life. According to Christianity historian Robert Louis Wilken, "By creating an alternate social structure within the Church they laid the foundations for one of the most enduring Christian institutions .
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Province Of Barcelona
BARCELONA (Catalan: , Spanish: ) is a province of eastern Spain , in the center of the autonomous community of Catalonia . The province is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona , Lleida , and Girona , and by the Mediterranean Sea . Its area is 7,733 km². 5,540,925 people live in the province, of whom about 30% (1,621,537) live within the administrative limits of the city of Barcelona , which itself is contained in the Barcelona metropolitan area . The capital of the province is the city of Barcelona, and the provincial council is based in the Casa Serra on the Rambla de Catalunya in that city. Some other cities and towns in Barcelona province include L\'Hospitalet de Llobregat , Badalona , Cerdanyola del Vallès , Martorell , Mataró , Granollers , Sabadell , Terrassa , Sitges , Igualada , Vic , Manresa , Berga . See also List of municipalities in Barcelona . Since the division by provinces in Spain and the division by _comarques _ in Catalonia do not completely agree, the term _comarques of the province of Barcelona_ would not be entirely correct
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Sant Benet, Bages
The MONASTERY OF SANT BENET DE BAGES is a former Benedictine monastery , in the comarca of Bages
Bages
, Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
. The Romanesque monastery was thoroughly restored at the beginning of the twentieth century by the Catalan architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch
Josep Puig i Cadafalch
. HISTORYThe monastery was founded about 950 by the noble Salla and his consort Ricarda, of the house of the viscounts of Osona
Osona
. According to the founding legend, Salla traveled to Rome
Rome
to have his institution authorized, and to have it depend directly on the Holy See , the usual method for preserving the community from interference from the bishop— in this case of Vic — in whose diocese it lay. The abbey church was consecrated 3 December 972, witnessed by a gathering of notables: Borrell II, Count of Barcelona
Borrell II, Count of Barcelona
, the bishops Frugifer of Vic, Guisad of Urgell and Pere of Barcelona , the viscount Guadald of Osona, and three of the four offspring of the recently deceased founder, his son Isarn and the sisters Quíxol and Ego, at the head of witnesses both laymen and priests, in a grand ceremonial recorded in the surviving act of consecration
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Santa Cecília De Montserrat
SANTA CECíLIA DE MONTSERRAT is a Benedictine monastery in Marganell , Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Architecture and fittings * 3 Bibliography * 4 External links HISTORYThe monastery was founded by its first abbot, Cesari, who was sponsored by Sunyer, Count of Barcelona
Sunyer, Count of Barcelona
and his wife Riquilda de Tolosa . In 945, Jordi , Bishop of Vich , authorized the formation of a monastery to be governed by the Rule of St. Benedict, with the monastery falling under the bishop's control. After the death of Cesari, the Abbot Oliva tried to annex the monastery, but met with opposition from the monks of the community. The monastery served as a place of refuge for pilgrims traveling to Montserrat. In the 15th century, it began to decline and in 1539, it was attached to Santa Maria de Montserrat Abbey . The building was looted and burned by French troops in 1811 and 1812. The Abbot of Montserrat, Miquel Muntadas, ordered its reconstruction in 1862. Until in 1940, it served a community of Benedictine nuns; it was associated with the monastery of Sant Pere de les Puelles . In 1954 the nuns moved to a new monastery, Sant Benet, and since then the building has operated as a refuge for hikers and as a meeting center. ARCHITECTURE AND FITTINGSThe old monastery was of Romanesque style. There are three apses and two semicircular arches