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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Register (sociolinguistics)
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to use features of prescribed grammar than in an informal setting—such as pronouncing words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar nasal (e.g. "walking", not "walkin'"), choosing more formal words (e.g. father vs. dad, child vs. kid, etc.), and refraining from using words considered nonstandard, such as ain't. As with other types of language variation, there tends to be a spectrum of registers rather than a discrete set of obviously distinct varieties—numerous registers could be identified, with no clear boundaries between them
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Scientific Literature
Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature. Academic publishing is the process of contributing the results of one's research into the literature, which often requires a peer-review process. Original scientific research published for the first time in scientific journals is called the primary literature. Patents and technical reports, for minor research results and engineering and design work (including computer software), can also be considered primary literature
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Sacred Language
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life.Contents1 Concept 2 Hinduism 3 Buddhism 4 Christianity 5 Islam 6 Judaism6.1 Donmeh7 List of sacred languages 8 ReferencesConcept[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)A sacred language is often the language which was spoken and written in the society in which a religion's sacred texts were first set down; however, these texts thereafter become fixed and holy, remaining frozen and immune to later linguistic developments
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South Asia
South
South
Asia
Asia
or Southern Asia
Asia
(also known as Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and all parts of India
India
situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush
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Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism
(/ˈsiːkɪzəm/; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi[3] Sikkhī, pronounced [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a religion that originated in the Punjab region
Punjab region
of the
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Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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ISO 639-1
 ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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Literary Language
A literary language is a register or dialect of a language that is used in literary writing of the language. This may also include liturgical writing. A literary variety of a language often gives rise to a standard variety of the language. The difference between literary and non-literary forms is more marked in some languages than in others. Where there is a strong divergence, the language is said to exhibit diglossia. In Latin, Classical Latin
Latin
was the literary register used in writing from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, while Vulgar Latin
Latin
was the common, spoken variety used across the Roman Empire
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Lingua Franca
A lingua franca (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/; lit. Frankish tongue),[1] also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.[2] Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities.[3][4] The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[1] Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(6 million), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(9 million), Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(6 million), and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(31 million)
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High Culture
High culture
High culture
encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art.[1] It may also include intellectual works considered to be of supreme philosophical, historical, or literary value, as well as the education which cultivates such aesthetic and intellectual pursuits. In popular usage, the term high culture identifies the culture of an upper class (an aristocracy) or of a status class (the intelligentsia); and also identifies a society’s common repository of broad-range knowledge and tradition (e.g. folk culture) that transcends the social-class system of the society
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2nd Millennium BC
The 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. It marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. Indo-Iranian migration onto the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
and onto the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
propagates the use of the chariot. Chariot
Chariot
warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age
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