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Samu Incident
The SAMU INCIDENT or BATTLE OF SAMU was a large cross-border assault on 13 November 1966 by Israeli military
Israeli military
on the Jordanian -controlled West Bank
West Bank
village of Samu in response to an al- Fatah
Fatah
land mine attack two days earlier near the West Bank
West Bank
border, which killed 3 Israeli soldiers on a border patrol. It purportedly originated from Jordanian territory. It was the largest Israeli military
Israeli military
operation since the 1956 Suez Crisis
1956 Suez Crisis
and is considered to have been a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Six-Day War in 1967. Since 1965 Jordan
Jordan
had an active campaign to curb Fatah
Fatah
sabotage activities. The handling of the incident was widely criticised in Israeli political and military circles, and the United Nations
United Nations
responded with United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 228
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The Retribution Operations
All-Palestine * Palestinian fedayeen
Palestinian fedayeen
Supported by: Egypt
Egypt
Jordan
Jordan
Syria
Syria
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS David Ben-Gurion Moshe Sharett
Moshe Sharett
Levi Eshkol
Levi Eshkol
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hafez al-Assad Hussein bin Talal STRENGTH Unknown Unknown CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 400–967 civilians and soldiers killed during this period by fedayeen attacks (1951–55) 2,700–5,000 Arab soldiers and Palestinians* killed by retribution operations (1951–55) * Both guerrillas and civiliansREPRISAL OPERATIONS (Hebrew : פעולות התגמול‎, Pe'ulot HaTagmul) were raids carried out by the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces in the 1950s and 1960s in response to frequent fedayeen attacks during which armed Arab militants infiltrated Israel
Israel
from Syria
Syria
, Egypt
Egypt
and Jordan to carry out attacks on Israeli civilians and soldiers . Most of Reprisal operations followed raids that resulted in Israeli fatalities. The goal of these operations was to create deterrence and prevent future attacks. Two other factors behind the raids were restoring public morale and training newly formed army units
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Es Samu
AS SAMU\' or ES-SAMU\' (Arabic : السموع‎‎) ( pronunciation (help ·info )) is a town in the Hebron Governorate of the West Bank
West Bank
, Palestine , 12 kilometers south of the city of Hebron
Hebron
and 60 kilometers southwest of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 Roman and Byzantine period * 2.2 Middle Ages * 2.3 Ottoman era * 2.4 British Mandate era * 2.5 Jordanian era * 2.6 Israeli rule * 3 Culture * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links GEOGRAPHYThe area is a hilly, rocky area cut by some wadis. The Armistice Demarcation Line (ADL, Green line ) runs generally east to west approximately five kilometers south of as Samu. The village of as Samu is located on twin hills with a wadi varying from shallow to deep between them. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics the town had a population of 19,649 in 2007. HISTORYROMAN AND BYZANTINE PERIODDuring Roman and Byzantine period , Eshtemoa was described as a large Jewish
Jewish
village. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud mentions Eshtemoa as well as an amora active in the town during the 4th century by the name of Hasa of Eshtemoa
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West Bank
The WEST BANK (Arabic : الضفة الغربية‎‎ aḍ-Ḍiffah l-Ġarbiyyah; Hebrew : הגדה המערבית‎‎, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Western Asia
Western Asia
, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli- Palestinian Authority control, and which final status of the entire area is yet to be determined by the parties concerned. The West Bank
West Bank
shares boundaries (demarcated by the Jordanian -Israeli armistice of 1949 ) to the west, north, and south with Israel
Israel
, and to the east, across the Jordan
Jordan
River , with Jordan
Jordan
. The West Bank
West Bank
also contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore. The West Bank, including East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2015 it has an estimated population of 2,785,366 Palestinians, and approximately 371,000 Israeli settlers , and approximately another 212,000 Jewish Israelis in East Jerusalem. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law , though Israel
Israel
disputes this
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Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic
Arabic
: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab
Arab
kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan
Jordan
is bordered by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to the east and south; Iraq
Iraq
to the north-east; Syria
Syria
to the north; Israel
Israel
, Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in its extreme south-west. Jordan
Jordan
is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman
Amman
, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan
Jordan
has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon
Ammon
, Moab
Moab
and Edom
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Six-Day War
EGYPT SYRIA JORDAN Iraq Lebanon -------------------------SUPPORTED BY: Algeria Kuwait Libya Morocco Pakistan PLO Sudan Tunisia COMMANDERS AND LEADERS
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Zalman Shazar
ZALMAN SHAZAR (Hebrew : זלמן שז"ר‎; November 24, 1889 – October 5, 1974) was an Israeli politician, author and poet. Shazar served as the third President of Israel
President of Israel
from 1963 to 1973. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Journalistic and political career * 3 Presidency * 4 Published works * 5 Awards and commemoration * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYSHNEUR ZALMAN RUBASHOV (Belarusian : Шнэер За́льман Рубашо́ў; Russian : Шне́ер За́лмен Рубашо́в) was born to a Hasidic
Hasidic
family of the Chabad-Lubavitch denomination in Mir , near Minsk
Minsk
, in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(today in Hrodna Voblast , Belarus
Belarus
), he received a religious education as a youth. He remained involved with Chabad
Chabad
for the rest of his life, assisting Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn , the sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe in founding the village of Kfar Chabad
Chabad
, and at his behest, allowed the religious community in Israel
Israel
to set up their own educational system. He later carried on an extensive correspondence with the Lubavitcher Rebbe Menachem Mendel Schneerson , and visited him on multiple occasions
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Killed In Action
KILLED IN ACTION (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces. The United States Department of Defense , for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger ) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas DIED OF WOUNDS (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) also uses DWRIA, rather than DOW, for "died of wounds received in action". However, historically, militaries and historians have used the former acronym. KIFA means "killed in flight accident". This term is used when personnel are killed in an aerial mishap that did not result from hostile action
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Levi Eshkol
LEVI ESHKOL (HELP ·INFO ) (Hebrew : לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל‎; born LEVI SHKOLNIK (Hebrew : לוי שקולניק‎)‎ 25 October 1895 – 26 February 1969) served as the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death from a heart attack in 1969. He was the first Israeli Prime Minister to die in office. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Political career * 2.1 Prime minister * 3 Death * 4 Commemoration and recognition * 5 See also * 6 Gallery * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BIOGRAPHY Levi Eshkol (Shkolnik) was born in the shtetl of Oratov , Kiev Governorate , Russian Empire (now _Orativ_, Vinnytsia Oblast , Ukraine). His mother (born as Dvora Krasnyanskaya) came from a Hasidic background and his father (Joseph Shkolnik) came from a family of Mitnagdim . Eshkol received a traditional Jewish education in Vilna (now Vilnius, Lithuania ). In 1914, he left for Palestine , then part of the Ottoman Empire . He was a leading member of the Judea Workers\' Union in 1915–17. During World War I , he volunteered with the Jewish Legion . Eshkol joined Kibbutz Degania Bet and married Rivka Maharshek. They had a daughter, Noa, born in 1924 and were divorced in 1927
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King Hussein
HUSSEIN BIN TALAL (Arabic : حسين بن طلال‎‎, Ḥusayn bin Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) was King of Jordan from the abdication of his father, King Talal , on 11 August 1952, until his death in 1999. According to Hussein, he was a 40th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
as he belongs to the Hashemite family—who have ruled Jordan
Jordan
since 1921. He was born in Amman
Amman
as the eldest son of crown prince Talal and his wife, princess Zein Al-Sharaf . Hussein began his schooling in Amman, continuing his education abroad. 15-year old Hussein witnessed the assassination of his grandfather King Abdullah I in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1951, an event considered to have had an influential effect on him—Hussein himself was also targeted but survived the attempt. Hussein was named crown prince after his father Talal became king. Talal was forced to abdicate by Parliament a year after he became king, due to mental illness. A Regency Council was appointed until Hussein came of age, who was enthroned at the age of 17 on 2 May 1953
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Bahjat Al-Muhaisen
BAHJAT AL-MUHAISEN (1927 – 10 April 2007) was a Royal Jordanian Land Force officer who served in significant infantry commands during his career. Born in Tafilah
Tafilah
, Jordan
Jordan
in 1927. Bahjat al-Muhaisen
Bahjat al-Muhaisen
in 1966, was the Colonel in command of the Hettin Infantry
Infantry
Brigade stationed in the Hebron
Hebron
area. On 13 November 1966, an Israeli battalion commanded by Colonel Yoav Shaham broke through the Jordanian borders towards Samu village, allegedly to destroy a Fateh base that was active in the area. The Jordanians named the incident The Battle of Samu , though Israelis refer to it as Operation Shredder . Colonel Bahjat al-Muhaisen was injured in the battle, and Colonel Yoav Shaham was killed in action. Seven months later still in command of his brigade, Bahjat participated in the 1967 Six Day War
Six Day War
without fighting and had to retreat to the East Bank of Jordan
Jordan
. His brigade was the last one to cross the River Jordan
Jordan
on Wednesday 7 June 1967 before destroying the bridges. Hebron
Hebron
was captured that day at 18:00. A little less than a year later, he saw action again in Battle of Karameh . That day ended decisively in favor of the Jordanian army
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Asad Ghanma
ASAD GHANMA (14 February 1930 – 18 July 2006) (Arabic : أسعد غنما‎‎) was a Jordanian Orthodox Christian general. From the town of Al Hisn in north of Jordan, he served as major and commander of the 48th Infantry Battalion of the Jordanian army during 1967 Arab-Israeli War and the Battle of Karameh . After the 1967 war, he was promoted to brigadier general and remained in Jordanian Armed Forces until retirement. He is well known for his role in the Samu Incident . SAMU INCIDENT Asad Ghanma was the commander of the 48th Infantry Battalion of the Jordanian army during the Samu Incident , which was the first Jordanian force to arrive at the battlefield. At the time of the Israeli raid into Samu , the Jordan's troops were strained, having been deployed across the 600-kilometer border with Israel and Ghanma's unit was the only one present in Samu's vicinity. The Israeli force consisted of eleven Centurion tanks, fifty armored half-tracks and 500 paratroopers and was backed by Ouragan bombers and eight field guns from the Israeli side of the border to counter any potential Jordanian armored vehicles or artillery. As the Israelis entered Samu and surrounding villages, Ghanma's forces, divided into three companies headed directly towards the Israelis' blocking position and were intercepted northwest of Samu
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Israeli Military
The ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES (IDF; Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎ Tsva ha-Hagana le-Yisra\'el , lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; Arabic : جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي‎‎), commonly known in Israel
Israel
by the Hebrew
Hebrew
acronym Tzahal (צה״ל‎), are the military forces of the State of Israel
Israel
. They consist of the ground forces , air force , and navy . It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces , and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff , the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel
Israel
; Lieutenant general ( Rav Aluf ) Gadi Eizenkot
Gadi Eizenkot
has served as Chief of Staff since 2015. An order from Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion on 26 May 1948 officially set up the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces as a conscript army formed out of the paramilitary group Haganah , incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi
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As-Samu
AS SAMU\' or ES-SAMU\' (Arabic : السموع‎‎) ( pronunciation (help ·info )) is a town in the Hebron Governorate of the West Bank
West Bank
, Palestine , 12 kilometers south of the city of Hebron
Hebron
and 60 kilometers southwest of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 Roman and Byzantine period * 2.2 Middle Ages * 2.3 Ottoman era * 2.4 British Mandate era * 2.5 Jordanian era * 2.6 Israeli rule * 3 Culture * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links GEOGRAPHYThe area is a hilly, rocky area cut by some wadis. The Armistice Demarcation Line (ADL, Green line ) runs generally east to west approximately five kilometers south of as Samu. The village of as Samu is located on twin hills with a wadi varying from shallow to deep between them. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics the town had a population of 19,649 in 2007. HISTORYROMAN AND BYZANTINE PERIODDuring Roman and Byzantine period , Eshtemoa was described as a large Jewish
Jewish
village. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud mentions Eshtemoa as well as an amora active in the town during the 4th century by the name of Hasa of Eshtemoa
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