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Samsara
SAṃSāRA is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change. It also refers to the theory of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental assumption of all Indian religions . _Saṃsāra_ is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, reincarnation , and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence". The concept of _Saṃsāra_ has roots in the Vedic literature , but the theory is not discussed there. It appears in developed form, but without mechanistic details, in the early Upanishads . The full exposition of the _Saṃsāra_ doctrine is found in Sramanic religions such as Buddhism and Jainism , as well as the various schools of Hindu philosophy , after about the mid 1st millennium BCE. The _Saṃsāra_ doctrine is tied to the Karma theory of Indian religions and the liberation from _Saṃsāra_ has been at the core of the spiritual quest of Indian traditions, as well as their internal disagreements. The liberation from _Saṃsāra_ is called Moksha , Nirvana , Mukti or Kaivalya
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Sansara (moth)
SANSARA is a genus of moths in the Cossidae family. SPECIES * Sansara dea (Yakovlev, 2006) * Sansara hreblayi Yakovlev, 2004 * Sansara naumanni Yakovlev, 2004 * Sansara pallidalae (Hampson, 1892)REFERENCES Wikimedia Commons has media related to SANSARA (MOTH) . Wikispecies has information related to: SANSARA (MOTH) * Yakovlev, R.V., 2004: Cossidae of Thailand. Part 2. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Atalanta 35 (3-4): 383-389. * Yakovlev, R.V., 2009: New taxa of African and Asian Cossidae (Lepidoptera). Euroasian Entomological Journal 8 (3): 353-361
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Samsara (other)
SAṃSāRA is a religious concept of reincarnation in Hinduism and other Indian religions. SAṃSāRA or SAMSARAM may also refer to: * Saṃsāra (Buddhism) , similar but distinct concept in Buddhism * Saṃsāra (Jainism) , cycle of births and deaths as per JainismCONTENTS * 1 Films * 2 Music * 3 Other uses * 4 See also FILMS * Samsaram (1950 film) , a 1950 film directed by L. V
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts . LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 sa ISO 639-2 san ISO 639-3 san GLOTTOLOG sans1269 SANSKRIT ( IAST : _Saṃskṛtam_; Devanagari : संस्कृतम्; IPA : ) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism ; a philosophical language of Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , and Jainism ; and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval India and Nepal . As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia , it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early-medieval era
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Indian Religions
Indian religions
Indian religions
as a percentage of world population Hinduism (15%) Buddhism
Buddhism
(7.1%) Sikhism (0.35%) Jainism
Jainism
(0.06%) Other (77.49%) INDIAN RELIGIONS, sometimes also termed as DHARMIC faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent ; namely Hinduism , Jainism
Jainism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Sikhism . These religions are also all classified as Eastern religions . Although Indian religions
Indian religions
are connected through the history of India
India
, they constitute a wide range of religious communities, and are not confined to the Indian subcontinent. Evidence attesting to prehistoric religion in the Indian subcontinent derives from scattered Mesolithic rock paintings. The Harappan people of the Indus Valley Civilisation , which lasted from 3300 to 1300 BCE (mature period, 2600–1900 BCE), had an early urbanized culture which predates the Vedic
Vedic
religion
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Reincarnation
REINCARNATION is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death . In simpler terms, Reincarnation
Reincarnation
is the resurgance of ones soul, passed on to another lifeform. It is also called rebirth or transmigration, and is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence. It is a central tenet of all major Indian religions , namely Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism , Jainism
Jainism
, and Sikhism . The idea of reincarnation is found in many ancient cultures, and a belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras
Pythagoras
, Socrates , and Plato
Plato
. It is also a common belief of various ancient and modern religions such as Spiritism , Theosophy , and Eckankar and is found as well in many tribal societies around the world, in places such as Australia
Australia
, East Asia
East Asia
, Siberia
Siberia
, and South America
South America

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Upanishads
DIVISIONS * Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka
Aranyaka
* Upanishads Upanishads
Upanishads
RIG VEDIC * Aitareya * Kaushitaki SAMA VEDIC * Chandogya * Kena YAJ
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Sramana
VEDANTA * _Advaita _ * _ Vishishtadvaita _ * _ Dvaita Vedanta _ * _ Bhedabheda _ * _ Dvaitadvaita _ * _ Achintya Bheda Abheda _ * _ Shuddhadvaita _ HETERODOX * CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM OTHER SCHOOLS * Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta * Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta * Tantra TEACHERS (Achar
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures , and especially their respective practices
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _. Followers of Jainism take five main vows: _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _satya _ ("truth"), _asteya _ ("not stealing"), _brahmacharya _ ("celibacy or chastity"), and _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment"). These principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. _ Parasparopagraho Jivanam _ ("the function of souls is to help one another") is the motto of Jainism
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Hindu Philosophy
VEDANTA * _Advaita _ * _ Vishishtadvaita _ * _ Dvaita Vedanta _ * _ Bhedabheda _ * _ Dvaitadvaita _ * _ Achintya Bheda Abheda _ * _ Shuddhadvaita _ HETERODOX * CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM OTHER SCHOOLS * Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta * Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta *
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Karma
KARMA (Sanskrit : कर्म, translit. _karma_; IPA: ( listen ); Pali : kamma;) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma
Karma
is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra . With origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism , and Taoism
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Moksha
_MOKSHA_ ( Sanskrit : मोक्ष, _mokṣa_), also called _VIMOKSHA_, _VIMUKTI_ and _MUKTI_, is a term in Hinduism and Hindu philosophy which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from _saṃsāra _, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, _moksha_ refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, _moksha_ is a central concept and included as one of the four aspects and goals of human life; the other three goals are _dharma _ (virtuous, proper, moral life), _artha _ (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and _kama _ (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. The concept of _moksha_ is found in Jainism , Buddhism and Hinduism . In some schools of Indian religions, _moksha_ is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as _vimoksha_, _vimukti_, _kaivalya_, _apavarga_, _mukti_, _nihsreyasa_ and _nirvana_. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The term nirvana is more common in Buddhism, while moksha is more prevalent in Hinduism
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Nirvana
_NIRVāṇA_ (/nɪərˈvɑːnə, -ˈvænə, nər-/ ; Sanskrit : निर्वाण _nirvāṇa _ ; Pali : निब्बान _nibbāna _; Prakrit : णिव्वाण _ṇivvāṇa _) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp. The term "nirvana" is most commonly associated with Buddhism, and represents its ultimate state of soteriological release and liberation from rebirths in _saṃsāra _. In Indian religions , _nirvana_ is synonymous with _moksha _ and _mukti_. All Indian religions assert it to be a state of perfect quietude, freedom, highest happiness along with it being the liberation from _samsara_, the repeating cycle of birth, life and death. However, Buddhist and non-Buddhist traditions describe these terms for liberation differently. In the Buddhist context, _nirvana _ refers to realization of non-self and emptiness , marking the end of rebirth by stilling the _fires_ that keep the process of rebirth going. In Hindu philosophy , it is the union of or the realization of the identity of Atman with Brahman , depending on the Hindu tradition. In Jainism , it is also the soteriological goal, it represents the release of a soul from karmic bondage and samsara
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Vedas
DIVISIONS * Samhita * Brahmana * Aranyaka * Upanishads Upanishads RIG VEDIC * Aitareya * Kaushitaki SAMA VEDIC * Chandogya * Kena YAJUR VEDIC * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri ATHARVA VEDIC * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna Other scriptures * Bhagavad Gita * Agamas RELATED HINDU TEXTS Vedangas *
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Samhita
DIVISIONS * Samhita * Brahmana * Aranyaka * Upanishads Upanishads RIG VEDIC * Aitareya * Kaushitaki SAMA VEDIC * Chandogya * Kena YAJUR VEDIC * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri ATHARVA VEDIC * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna Other scriptures * Bhagavad Gita * Agamas RELATED HINDU TEXTS Vedangas * Shiksha * Chandas * Vyakarana *
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