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Samhain
Samhain
Samhain
(/ˈsɑːwɪn, ˈsaʊɪn/; Irish: [sˠəuɪnʲ]) is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the "darker half" of the year. Traditionally, it is celebrated from 31 October to 1 November, as the Celtic day began and ended at sunset. This is about halfway between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice. It is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals, along with Imbolc, Bealtaine
Bealtaine
and Lughnasadh. Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man
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Irish Language
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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Brittany
Brittany
Brittany
(/ˈbrɪtəni/; French: Bretagne [bʁətaɲ] ( listen); Breton: Breizh, pronounced [bʁɛjs] or [bʁɛχ];[1] Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced [bəʁtaɛɲ]) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica
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Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlikʲ] ( listen)) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels
Gaels
of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.[3] In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001
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December Solstice
The December solstice, also known as the southern solstice, is the solstice that occurs each December, typically between the 20th and the 22nd day of the month according to the Gregorian calendar
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Isle Of Man
The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Manx: Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), also known simply as Mann (/mæn/; Manx: Mannin [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann
Lord of Mann
and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Ranked by the World Bank
World Bank
as the 5th richest nation in the world by GDP per capita,[6] the largest sectors are insurance and eGaming with 17% of GNP each, followed by ICT and banking with 9% each.[7] The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged
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Brythonic Languages
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages
Celtic languages
(Welsh: ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig, Cornish: yethow brythonek/predennek, Breton: yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.[2] The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys
John Rhys
from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael. The name Brittonic derives ultimately from the name Πρεττανική (Prettanike), recorded by Greek authors for the British Isles. The Brittonic languages
Brittonic languages
derive from the Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
language, spoken throughout Great Britain
Great Britain
south of the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
during the Iron Age and Roman period
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Wales
Wales
Wales
(/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen); Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain.[8] It is bordered by England
England
to the east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit
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Cornwall
Cornwall
Cornwall
(/ˈkɔːrnwɔːl, -wəl/;[1] Cornish: Kernow [ˈkɛrnɔʊ]) is a county in South West England
England
in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea,[2] to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar
River Tamar
which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain. The furthest southwestern point of the island is Land's End; the southernmost point is Lizard Point. Cornwall
Cornwall
has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi).[3][4][5][6] The county has been administered since 2009 by the unitary authority, Cornwall
Cornwall
Council
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Passage Tomb
A passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or passage tomb consists of a narrow passage made of large stones and one or multiple burial chambers covered in earth or stone. The building of passage tombs was normally carried out with megaliths and smaller stones; they usually date from the Neolithic
Neolithic
Age. Those with more than one chamber may have multiple sub-chambers leading off from the main burial chamber. One common layout, the cruciform passage grave, is cross-shaped. Sometimes passage tombs are covered with a cairn, especially those dating from later times. Not all passage graves have been found to contain evidence of human remains. One such example is Maeshowe. The Passage Tomb tradition is believed to have originated in the French region of Brittany
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Dziady
Dziady
Dziady
is an ancient Slavic feast commemorating the dead ancestors. The Polish and Belarusian word means "grandfathers". The commemoration took place twice every year (in spring and in autumn), but nowadays it is usually held around end of October. During the feast the Slavs perform libations and eat ritual meals, to celebrate the living and the souls of the forefathers who joined the dziady after dark. In Poland
Poland
the tradition was supplanted by the Christian Zaduszki feast[1] but original Dziady
Dziady
celebration continues among Rodnovery. In Belarus, Dziady
Dziady
(Дзяды) usually took place on the last Saturday before St. Dmitry's day, at the end of October/beginning of November (Dźmitreuskija dziady, St. Dmitry's Dziady). There were also Trinity
Trinity
Day Dziady, Shrovetide Dziady, and some other dates
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Early Irish Literature
Early Irish literature
Irish literature
is the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.[1] The earliest existing examples of the written Irish language are Ogham
Ogham
inscriptions dating from the 4th century. Extant manuscripts do not go back farther than the 8th century
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Liminality
In anthropology, liminality (from the Latin word līmen, meaning "a threshold"[1]) is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that occurs in the middle stage of rites, when participants no longer hold their preritual status but have not yet begun the transition to the status they will hold when the rite is complete
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Fairy
A fairy (also fata, fay, fey[1], fae, fair folk; from faery, faerie, "realm of the fays") is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural.Contents1 Etymology 2 Historical development 3 Description 4 Origin4.1 Christian mythology 4.2 Demoted pagan deities 4.3 Spirits of the dead 4.4 A hidden people 4.5 Elementals5 Characteristics 6 Classifications 7 Changelings 8 Protective charms 9 Legends9.1 Tuatha Dé Danann 9.2 Aos Sí10 In literature 11 In art 12 Cottingley Fairies 13 See also 14 Bibliography 15 References 16 External linksEtymologyThis section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Propitiation
Propitiation, also called expiation, is the act of appeasing or making well-disposed a deity, thus incurring divine favor or avoiding divine retribution.[1]Contents1 Christian theology 2 Propitiation and expiation 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksChristian theology[edit] In Romans 3:25 the NASB translates "propitiation" from the Greek word hilasterion. Concretely it specifically means the lid of The Ark of The Covenant.[2] The only other occurrence of hilasterion in the NT is in Hebrews 9:5, where the NASB translates it as "mercy seat". For many Christians it has the meaning of "that which expiates or propitiates" or "the gift which procures propitiation". 1 John 2:2 (KJV) reads: "And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world." There is frequent similar use of hilasterion in the Septuagint, Exodus 25:17-22 ff
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