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Samara (fruit)
A samara is a winged achene, a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall. A samara is a simple dry fruit and indehiscent (not opening along a seam). The shape of a samara enables the wind to carry the seed farther away than regular seeds from the parent tree,[1] and is thus a form of anemochory. In some cases the seed is in the centre of the wing, as in the elms (genus Ulmus), the hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata), and the bushwillows (genus Combretum)
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Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
(or simply Commons) is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files.[1] It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. Files from Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
can be used across all Wikimedia projects[2] in all languages, including, Wikibooks, Wikivoyage, Wikispecies, Wikisource, and Wikinews, or downloaded for offsite use
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Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward, backward, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL
VTOL
(vertical takeoff and landing) aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix (ἕλιξ) "helix, spiral, whirl, convolution"[1] and pteron (πτερόν) "wing".[2][3][4][5] English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", and "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61
Focke-Wulf Fw 61
being the first operational helicopter in 1936
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Dehiscence (botany)
Dehiscence is the splitting, at maturity, along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia. Sometimes this involves the complete detachment of a part. Structures that open in this way are said to be dehiscent. Structures that do not open in this way are called indehiscent, and rely on other mechanisms such as decay or predation to release the contents. A similar process to dehiscence occurs in some flower buds (e.g., Platycodon, Fuchsia), but this is rarely referred to as dehiscence unless circumscissile dehiscence is involved; anthesis is the usual term for the opening of flowers. Dehiscence may or may not involve the loss of a structure through the process of abscission
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Combretum
About 370, see textSynonymsAetia Adans. Bureava Baill. Cacoucia Aubl. Calopyxis Tul. Campylochiton Welw. ex Hiern Chrysostachys Pohl Cristaria Sonn. Embryogonia Blume Forsgardia Vell. Gonocarpus
Gonocarpus
Ham. (non Thunb.: preoccupied) Grislea L. Hambergera Scop. Physopodium Desv. Poivrea Comm. ex Thouars Schousboea Willd. Seguiera Rchb. ex Oliv. Sheadendron G.Bertol.Combretum, the bushwillows or combretums, make up the type genus of the family Combretaceae. The genus comprises about 370 species of trees and shrubs, roughly 300 of which are native to tropical and southern Africa, about 5 to Madagascar, some 25 to tropical Asia
Asia
and approximately 40 to tropical America. The genus is absent from Australia
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Bushwillow
About 370, see textSynonymsAetia Adans. Bureava Baill. Cacoucia Aubl. Calopyxis Tul. Campylochiton Welw. ex Hiern Chrysostachys Pohl Cristaria Sonn. Embryogonia Blume Forsgardia Vell. Gonocarpus
Gonocarpus
Ham. (non Thunb.: preoccupied) Grislea L. Hambergera Scop. Physopodium Desv. Poivrea Comm. ex Thouars Schousboea Willd. Seguiera Rchb. ex Oliv. Sheadendron G.Bertol.Combretum, the bushwillows or combretums, make up the type genus of the family Combretaceae. The genus comprises about 370 species of trees and shrubs, roughly 300 of which are native to tropical and southern Africa, about 5 to Madagascar, some 25 to tropical Asia
Asia
and approximately 40 to tropical America. The genus is absent from Australia
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Autorotation (helicopter)
Autorotation
Autorotation
is a state of flight in which the main rotor system of a helicopter or similar aircraft turns by the action of air moving up through the rotor, as with an autogyro, rather than engine power driving the rotor.[1][2][3] The term autorotation dates to a period of early helicopter development between 1915 and 1920, and refers to the rotors turning without the engine.[4] It is analogous to the gliding flight of a fixed-wing aircraft. The most common use of autorotation in helicopters is to safely land the aircraft in the event of an engine failure or tail-rotor failure. It is a common emergency procedure taugh
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Spinning Jenny
The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Oswaldtwistle, Lancashire
Lancashire
in England. The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce cloth, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced. The yarn produced by the jenny was not very strong until Richard Arkwright invented the water-powered 'Water Frame', which produced yarn harder and stronger than that of the initial spinning jenny. It started the factory system. [1]Contents1 History1.1 Components 1.2 The politics of cotton 1.3 The economics of Northern England in 17502 Success 3 Origin and myth 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksHistory[edit] The spinning jenny was invented by James Hargreaves
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Whirligig
A whirligig is an object that spins or whirls, or has at least one part that spins or whirls. Whirligigs are also known as pinwheels, buzzers, comic weathervanes, gee-haws, spinners, whirlygigs, whirlijigs, whirlyjigs, whirlybirds, or plain whirly. Whirligigs are most commonly powered by the wind but can be hand, friction, or motor powered. They can be used as a kinetic garden ornament
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Wingnut (hardware)
A wingnut or wing nut is a type of nut with two large metal "wings", one on each side, so it can be easily tightened and loosened by hand without tools. A similar fastener with a male thread is known as a wing screw[1][2] or a wing bolt.[3]Contents1 Types 2 Bicycles 3 Drum hardware3.1 Memory4 Seltzer bottle 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 ReferencesTypes[edit] ASME B18.6.9 classifies wing nuts first by manufacturing method and then by style.Type A are cold forged or cold formed produced in regular, light and heavy dimensional series. Type B are hot forged solid nuts available in three different wing styles. Type C are die cast nuts available in three wing styles with variances between regular and heavy dimensional series Type D are stamped sheet metal nuts available in three wing styles.Bicycles[edit] Before the development of quick release skewers, bicycle wheels were held in place with wingnuts.[4][5] Drum hardware[edit] In a drum kit wingnuts
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Legume
A legume (/ˈlɛɡjuːm/ or /ˌləˈɡjuːm/) is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae
Fabaceae
(or Leguminosae). Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their grain seed called pulse, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, chickpeas, lentils, lupin bean, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts and tamarind. Fabaceae
Fabaceae
is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas
Americas
and Africa.[1] A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides
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Loment
A loment (or lomentum) is a type of indehiscent[1] legume fruit that breaks apart at constrictions occurring between segments, so that each segment contains one seed.[2] It is a type of schizocarp.[1] Tick trefoil (Desmodium) and sweet vetch (Hedysarum) are two genera that exhibit this fruit type, which is found particularly in the Hedysareae
Hedysareae
tribe of the family Fabaceae. References[edit]^ a b Bell, A.D. (1997). Plant form: an illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.  ^ Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. illustrated by Williamson, J
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Nut (fruit)
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). The translation of "nut" in certain languages frequently requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous.Nuts being sold in a marketMost seeds come from fruits that naturally free themselves from the shell, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts, chestnuts, and acorns, which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary. The general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, and many nuts (in the culinary sense), such as almonds, pecans, pistachios, walnuts, and Brazil nuts,[1] are not nuts in a botanical sense
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Pome
In botany, a pome (derived from Latin
Latin
pōmum, meaning "fruit") is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae
Malinae
of the family Rosaceae.Contents1 Etymology 2 Morphology 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word pome entered English in the late 14th century, and referred to an apple or an apple-shaped object. It derived from the Old French word pome "apple" (12th century; modern French is pomme), which in turn derived from the Late Latin
Latin
or Vulgar Latin
Latin
word poma "apple", originally the plural of Latin
Latin
pomum "fruit", later "apple".[1] Morphology[edit] A pome is an accessory fruit composed of one or more carpels surrounded by accessory tissue
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