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Samanid Empire
The Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
(Persian: سامانیان‎, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni[7] Iranian empire,[8] ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was mostly centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana
Transoxiana
during its existence, but at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed all of today's Afghanistan, and large parts of Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Pakistan.[9] The Samanid state was founded by four brothers; Nuh, Ahmad, Yahya, and Ilyas—each of them ruled their own territory under Abbasid suzerainty. In 892, Isma'il ibn Ahmad
Isma'il ibn Ahmad
(892–907) united the Samanid state under one ruler, thus effectively putting an end to the feudal system used by the Samanids
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Kura–Araxes Culture
The Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC,[1] which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.[2] The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; it spread northward in Caucasus
Caucasus
by 3000 BC (but never reaching Colchis[3]). Altogether, the early trans-Caucasian culture enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km,[4] and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
(except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.[5][6] The name of the culture is derived from the Kura and Araxes river valleys
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Persian Mythology
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Farighunids
The Farighunids were an Iranian dynasty that ruled Guzgan (modern-day northern Afghanistan) in the late 9th, 10th and early 11th centuries.Contents1 History 2 Cultural significance 3 See also 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The first Farighunid amir mentioned is Ahmad b. Farighun. Ahmad, together with the Banijurid Abu Dawud Muhammad b. Ahmad, was compelled to recognize the Saffarid
Saffarid
Amr bin Laith
Amr bin Laith
as his suzerain. Only a short time afterwards, Amr was defeated and captured by the Samanids; Ahmad transferred his allegiance to them around this time. The Farighunids would remain Samanid vassals until the overthrow of the latter at the end of the 10th century
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan[b] (Kazakh: Қазақстан, translit. Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] ( listen); Russian: Казахстан, IPA: [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, translit. Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan),[4][13] is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi).[4][14] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is the dominant nation of Central Asia
Central Asia
economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry
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Kyrgyzstan
Coordinates: 41°N 75°E / 41°N 75°E / 41; 75Kyrgyz Republic Кыргыз Республикасы (Kyrgyz) Республика Киргизстан (Russian)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни Kyrgyz Respublikasının Mamlekettik Gimni National Anthem of the Kyrgyz RepublicLocation of  Kyrgyzstan  (green)Capital and largest city Bishkek 42°52′N 74°36′E / 42.867°N 74.600°E / 42.867; 74.600Official languages[1]Kyrgyz (national and official) Russian (official)Ethnic groups (2016)73.0% Kyrgyz[2] 14.6% Uzbek 6.0% Russian 1.1% Chinese 5.3% othersReligion Islam, Christianity
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by
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Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60Turkmenistan Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni (English: "State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)Capital and largest city Ashgabat 37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333Official languages Turkmen[1]Inter-ethnic languages RussianEthnic groups (2003)85% Turkmen 5% Uzbek 4% Russian 6% others[2]Demonym TurkmenGovernment Unitary authoritarian presidential republic• PresidentGurbanguly Berdimuhamedow• Chairman of the MejlisAkja NurberdiýewaLegislature MejlisFormation• 
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Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 42°N 63°E / 42°N 63°E / 42; 63 Republic
Republic
of Uzbekistan O'zbekiston Respublikasi  (Uzbek)FlagState emblem[1]Anthem:  Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi State Anthem of the Republic
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Kayanian Dynasty
The Kayanians, also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids. Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno, the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold
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Karakhanids
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Kara-Khanid Khanate (Persian: آل افراسیاب‎, translit. Āl-i Afrāsiyāb, lit. 'House of Afrisyab') was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania
Transoxania
in Central Asia,
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Islamic monarch styled emir. It also means principality.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 As monarchies 3 As provinces 4 List of present Emirates 5 List of former and integrated emirates5.1 Europe5.1.1 Iberia 5.1.2 Mediterranean region 5.1.3 Caucasus5.2 Asia5.2.1 Near East 5.2.2 Arabia 5.2.3 Central Asia and Indian subcontinent5.3 Africa5.3.1 North Africa 5.3.2 Nigeria6 See also 7 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Etymologically emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة‎ imārah, plural: إمارات imārāt) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir (prince, commander, governor etc.). As monarchies[edit] The United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
is a federal state that comprises seven federal emirates, each administered by a hereditary emir, these seven forming the electoral college for the federation's President and Prime Minister
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