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Salta Province
Salta
Salta
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsalta]) is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca. It also surrounds Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia
Bolivia
and Paraguay
Paraguay
and to the west lies Chile.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Climate3 Economy 4 Tourism 5 Demographics 6 Politics 7 Political division 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] Before the Spanish conquest, numerous native peoples (now called Diaguitas and Calchaquíes) lived in the valleys of what is now Salta Province; they formed many different tribes, the Quilmes and Humahuacas among them, which all shared the Cacán language
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Cacán
Cacán (also Cacan, Kakán, Calchaquí, Chaka, Diaguita, and Kaka) is an extinct language that was spoken by the Diaguita
Diaguita
and Calchaquí tribes in northern Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. It became extinct during the late 17th century or early 18th century. The language was documented by the Jesuit Alonso de Bárcena, but the manuscript is lost. Genetic affiliation of the language remains unclear, and it has not been possible to link it to any existing language family.[2] References[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Calchaqui". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Cacan"
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UTC−3
UTC−03:00 is a time offset that subtracts 3 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).Contents1 As standard time (Northern Hemisphere winter)1.1 North America2 As daylight saving time (Northern Hemisphere summer)2.1 North America3 As standard time (all year round)3.1 South America 3.2 Antarctica4 As standard time (Southern Hemisphere winter)4.1 South America5 As daylight saving time (Southern Hemisphere summer)5.1 South America 5.2 Antarctica6 Places using UTC−03:00, located outside the 45°W ± 7.5° range 7 See also 8 ReferencesAs standard time (Northern Hemisphere winter)[edit] Principal cities: Nuuk North America[edit]  Greenland
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Quilmes (tribe)
The Quilmes
Quilmes
people, also known as Kilmes, were an indigenous tribe of the Diaguita
Diaguita
group settled in the western subandean valleys of today’s Tucumán province, in northwestern Argentina. They fiercely resisted the Inca
Inca
invasions of the 15th century, and continued to resist the Spaniards for 130 years, until being defeated in 1667. Spanish invaders relocated the last 2,000 survivors to a reservation (reducción) 20 km south of Buenos Aires. This 1,500 km journey was made by foot, causing hundreds of Quilmes
Quilmes
to die in the process. By 1810, the reservation was abandoned as a result of its having become a ghost town. The survivors ultimately settled in what is now the city of Quilmes. The Quilmes
Quilmes
Indians were one of the fiercest cultures which resisted the Incas but eventually fell to the Spaniards
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Gran Chaco
Gran may refer to:Contents1 People 2 Places 3 Spanish language 4 Other 5 See alsoPeople[edit] Gran (name)Places[edit]Gran, the historical German name for Esztergom, a city and the primatial metropolitan see of Hungary Gran, Norway Gran (island), SwedenSpanish language[edit] In Spanish Gran means "Great" or "Greater", and may refer to: Gran Canaria, an island of the Canary Islands, Spain Gran Colombia
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Spanish Colonization Of The Americas
The overseas expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadores. The Americas
Americas
were incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil and Canada, and the crown created civil and religious structures to administer the region
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Chile
Coordinates: 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71Republic of Chile República de Chile  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Por la razón o la fuerza (Spanish) (English: "By Right or Might") [1]Anthem:  National Anthem of ChileLocation of  Chile  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Santiagoa 33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667National language SpanishEthnic groups (2012[2])64% White 30% Mestizo 5% Mapuche 0.7% Aymara 0.1% Other 0.2% UnspecifiedDemonym ChileanGovernment Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentSebastián Piñera• Senate PresidentCarlos Montes Cisternas• President of the Chamber of DeputiesMaya FernándezLegislature National Congress• Upper houseSenate
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Paraguay
Coordinates: 23°S 58°W / 23°S 58°W / -23; -58Republic of ParaguayRepública del Paraguay  (Spanish) Tetã Paraguái  (Guaraní)Flag (obverse)Seal [nb 1]Motto: "Paz y justicia" (Spanish) "Peace and justice"Anthem:  Paraguayos, República o Muerte  (Spanish) Paraguayans, Republic or DeathLocation of  Paraguay  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Asunción 25°16′S 57°40′W / 25.267°S 57.667°W / -25.267; -57.667Official languagesSpanish GuaraniEthnic groups (2016[1])95% Mestizo 5% otherDemonym Paraguayan Guaraní (colloquial)[2]Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentHoracio Cartes• Vice PresidentJuan AfaraLegislature Congress• Upper houseSenate• Lowe
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Bolivia
Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666Plurinational State of BoliviaEstado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish) Tetã Hetãvoregua Volívia  (Guaraní) Buliwya Mamallaqta  (Quechua) Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "La Unión es la Fuerza" (Spanish) "Unity is Strength"[1]Anthem: Himno Nacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)Location of  Bolivia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Sucre
Sucre
[1]Largest city San
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Conquistadores
Conquistadors /kɒŋˈkɪstəˌdɔːrz/ (from Portuguese or Spanish conquistadores "conquerors"; Spanish pronunciation: [koŋkistaˈðoɾes], Portuguese pronunciation: [kũkiʃtɐˈdoɾis], [kõkiʃtɐˈðoɾɨʃ]) is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in a general sense.[1][2] During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes
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Diego De Almagro
Diego de Almagro, (c. 1475[2] – July 8, 1538), also known as El Adelantado
Adelantado
and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador and a companion. Later he was a rival of Francisco Pizarro. He participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru
Spanish conquest of Peru
and was credited as the first European discoverer of Chile. Later, Almagro lost his left eye battling with coastal natives in the New World
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Hernando De Lerma
Hernando de Lerma (born November 1, 1541) was a conqueror, politician, lawyer and city founder from Seville, Spain. On November 13, 1577, Lerma was named Governor of Tucumán, (in present Argentina) by Spanish King Philip II. Described by historians as a man of violence, de Lerma had problems with several people from the area, including fellow countrymen. Among those he persecuted were the spokesman of a Catholic bishop. He also disliked Francisco Salcedo, another Catholic man who built a church in Santiago del Estero. Many of de Lerma's opponents ended up in jail or being killed. Salcedo retired to another city and became convalescent, but he was returned to Tucumán by de Lerma's men after he found him. In Tucumán, Salcedo was tried and jailed. A large number of Salcedo's supporters were killed. In April 1582, de Lerma founded the city of Salta, next to the Arenales River
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Francisco De Toledo, Count Of Oropesa
Francisco Álvarez de Toledo (10 July 1515 – 21 April 1582) was an aristocrat and soldier of the Kingdom of Spain and the fifth Viceroy of Peru. He is often considered the "best of Peru's viceroys," albeit controversial for the deleterious impact of some of his actions on the Native American (Indian) population. He brought stability to a tumultuous colony of Spain and enacted administrative reforms which changed the character of Spanish rule and the relationship between the indigenous Native Americans of the Andes and their Spanish overlords.[1] With a policy called reductions, Toledo forcibly relocated much of the Indian population of Peru and Bolivia into new settlements to facilitate Christianization, to collect tribute and taxes, and to gather Indian labor to work in mines and other Spanish enterprises. Toledo was born in Oropesa. He held the position of viceroy from November 30, 1569, until 1 May 1581, a total of eleven years and five months
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Viceroyalty Of The Río De La Plata
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
(Spanish: Virreinato del Río de la Plata, also called Viceroyalty of the River Plate in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in the Americas. The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 from several former Viceroyalty of Perú
Viceroyalty of Perú
dependencies that mainly extended over the Río de la Plata Basin, roughly the present-day territories of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay, extending inland from the Atlantic Coast.[1] Buenos Aires, located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento, was chosen as the capital
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is higher. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq
for the UNDP.[1][2] The 2010 Human Development Report
Human Development Report
introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(IHDI)
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1. The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision
Country subdivision
code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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