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Saloum
The KINGDOM OF SALOUM ( Serer language
Serer language
: Saluum or Saalum) was a Serer /Wolof kingdom in present-day Senegal
Senegal
. Its kings may have been of Mandinka / Kaabu
Kaabu
origin. The capital of Saloum
Saloum
was the city of Kahone . It was a sister kingdom of Sine . Their history, geography and culture were intricately linked and it was common to refer to them as the Sine-Saloum
Sine-Saloum
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 People and language * 3 Commerce and geography * 4 Notes * 5 References HISTORY Apartment of the Maad Saloum (king of Saloum) in 1821. Carte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853): an ethnic map of Senegal
Senegal
at the time of French colonialism
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Kahone
KAHONE is a town and commune near Kaolack , Senegal
Senegal
. It is primarily agricultural, but it is participating in industrial development plans. Also, the town is pursuing increased tourism based on its ancient Serer culture. Kahone
Kahone
is the royal seat of the Serer Kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
which has ruled there since the 15th century after the Battle of Turubang (1335) and centuries previous to that. Kahone
Kahone
was originally a far more important town than Kaolack , but the roles have been reversed in recent years, and Kahone
Kahone
has been reduced to a sub-prefecture of Kaolack. An annual royal festival is celebrated in which the OMaad (Serer king), Djaraaf (Serer prime minister) and other dignitaries meet to decide kingdom issues and hold pageants celebrating the history of Saloum
Saloum
and the Serer people
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Serer Language
SERER, sometimes called SERER-SINE "Serer proper" (_Seereer-Siin_, etc.) after its prestige dialect , is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal and 30,000 in the Gambia . It is the principal language of the Serer people . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Consonants * 3 Serer greetings * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography CLASSIFICATIONSerer is one of the Senegambian languages , which are characterized by consonant mutation . The traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani . However, a widely cited misreading of the data by Wilson (1989) inadvertently exchanged Serer for Wolof . Dialects of Serer are Serer Sine (the prestige dialect ), Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Dyegueme (Gyegem), and Niominka . They are mutually intelligible . Not all Serer people speak Serer
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Cangin Languages
The CANGIN LANGUAGES are spoken by 200,000 people (as of 2007) in a small area east of Dakar
Dakar
, Senegal
Senegal
. They are the languages spoken by the Serer people who do not speak the Serer language (Serer-Sine). Because the people are ethnically Serer, the Cangin languages
Cangin languages
are commonly thought to be dialects of the Serer language. However, they are not closely related; Serer is closer to Fulani than it is to Cangin. The languages are: Safen , or Saafi-Saafi, the language of the Saafi people . Spoken inland from the Petite Côte, an area southeast of Dakar. The largest Cangin language, with over 100,000 speakers and growing (2007). Lehar (Laalaa), the language of the Serer-Laalaa (or Serer-Lehar), spoken in a small area north of Thiès . Noon , the language of the Serer-Noon , spoken around Thiès
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Wolof Language
WOLOF (/ˈwɒlɒf/ ) is a language of Senegal , the Gambia and Mauritania , and the native language of the Wolof people . Like the neighbouring languages Serer and Fula , it belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger–Congo language family . Unlike most other languages of Sub-Saharan Africa , Wolof is not a tonal language . Wolof originated as the language of the Lebu people . It is the most widely spoken language in Senegal, spoken natively by the Wolof people (40% of the population) but also by most other Senegalese as a second language. Wolof dialects vary geographically and between rural and urban areas. " Dakar -Wolof", for instance, is an urban mixture of Wolof, French , and Arabic . "Wolof" is the standard spelling and may refer to the Wolof people or to Wolof culture
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Serer Religion
The SERER RELIGION, or A ƭAT ROOG ("the way of the Divine"), is the original religious beliefs, practices, and teachings of the Serer people of Senegal
Senegal
in western Africa
Africa
. The Serer people believe in a universal supreme deity called Roog (or Rog). In the Cangin languages , Roog is referred to as Koox (var : Kooh ), Kopé Tiatie Cac , Kokh Kox , etc. The Serer people are found throughout the Senegambia region . Serer religious practices encompass ancient chants and poems, veneration of and offerings to deities as well as spirits (pangool ), astronomy , Initiation rites, medicine , cosmology and the history of the Serer people
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God ( Allah ) and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran , viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the _sunnah _, composed of accounts called _hadith _) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE)
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Wolof People
The WOLOF PEOPLE (UK : /woʊlɒf/ ) are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal
Senegal
, The Gambia
The Gambia
, and southwestern coastal Mauritania
Mauritania
. In Senegal, the Wolof are the largest ethnic group (~ 39%), while elsewhere they are a minority. They refer to themselves as Wolof, and speak the Wolof language – a West Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. Their early history is unclear and based on oral traditions that link the Wolof to the Almoravids
Almoravids
. The earliest documented mention of the Wolof is found in the records of 15th-century Portuguese financed Italian traveller Alvise Cadamosto
Alvise Cadamosto
, who mentioned well established Islamic Wolof chiefs advised by Muslim counselors and divines
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Fula People
The FULA PEOPLE or FULANI or FULɓE (Fula : _Fulɓe_; French: _Peul_; Hausa : _Fulani or Hilani_; Portuguese: _Fula_; Wolof : _Pël_; Bambara : _Fulaw_; Arabic: _Fallatah_), numbering between 20 and 25 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa , widely dispersed across the region. The Fula people are traditionally believed to have roots in peoples from North Africa and the Middle East , who later intermingled with local West African ethnic groups. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by the Fula language and their Islamic religious affiliation, their history and their culture. A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 7 to 8 million – are pastoralists , making them the ethnic group with the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world
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Immigrant
IMMIGRATION is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker . As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election
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Medieval
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages . Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period
Migration Period
, including various Germanic peoples , formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Guelowar
The GUELOWAR (many variations: Gelwaar, Guelwaar, Guelwar, Gelwar etc.) was the maternal dynasty in the Serer pre-colonial kingdoms of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
(in the Senegambia , but mainly in the western area of present-day Senegal
Senegal
). They were from the Mandinka ethnic group. The offsprings of Mandinka women and Serer men became the kings of Sine and Saloum. The dynasty lasted from the mid-14th century to 1969, in which year both kings died
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Wagadou
The GHANA EMPIRE (c. 400 until c. 1200), properly known as AWKAR ( Ghana
Ghana
or Ga'na being the title of its ruler) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania
Mauritania
and western Mali
Mali
. Complex societies based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times , but the introduction of the camel to western Sahara in the 3rd century A.D. gave way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana
Ghana
Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient, more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco to the Niger river . The Ghana
Ghana
Empire
Empire
grew rich from this increased trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt allowing for larger urban centres to develop
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Lamane
LAMANE or LAMAN (also laam or lam) means "master of the land" in the Serer language
Serer language
. The name was also sometimes the title of chiefs or kings of the Serer people of the Senegambia region which includes modern day Senegal
Senegal
and the Gambia . This title was also used by some kings of the Wolof kingdoms. The title is sometimes used interchangeably with the old title Maad . After the Guelowars' migration to the Sine and the foundation of the Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
, "lamane" denotes a provincial chiefs answerable to the King of Sine and Saloum
Saloum

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