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Saloum
The KINGDOM OF SALOUM ( Serer language : Saluum or Saalum) was a Serer /Wolof kingdom in present-day Senegal
Senegal
. Its kings may have been of Mandinka / Kaabu origin. The capital of Saloum
Saloum
was the city of Kahone . It was a sister kingdom of Sine . Their history, geography and culture were intricately linked and it was common to refer to them as the Sine-Saloum
Sine-Saloum
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 People and language * 3 Commerce and geography * 4 Notes * 5 References HISTORY Apartment of the Maad Saloum
Maad Saloum
(king of Saloum) in 1821. Carte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853): an ethnic map of Senegal
Senegal
at the time of French colonialism. The pre-colonial states of Baol, Sine and Saloum
Saloum
are arrayed along the southwest coast, with the inland areas marked "Peuple Sérère"
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (République française ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France
France
is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris
Paris
, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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Senegambia
SENEGAMBIA, officially the SENEGAMBIA CONFEDERATION, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia
The Gambia
, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia
The Gambia
refused to move closer toward union. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Problems with Senegambia\'s border * 3 Birth of the Confederation
Confederation
* 4 End of the Confederation
Confederation
* 5 References HISTORYAs a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region
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Conservatism
CONSERVATISM is a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization . By some definitions, conservatives have variously sought to preserve institutions including religion , monarchy , parliamentary government , property rights and the social hierarchy , emphasizing stability and continuity, while the more extreme elements called reactionaries oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated with François-René de Chateaubriand
François-René de Chateaubriand
in 1818, during the period of Bourbon restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution
French Revolution
. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics , has since been used to describe a wide range of views
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Enthroned
ENTHRONED is a black metal band formed in Charleroi
Charleroi
in 1993 by Cernunnos. He soon recruited guitarist Tsebaoth and a vocalist from grindcore /black metal band Hecate who stayed until the end of December 1993. Then bassist/vocalist Sabathan joined. The band released a five-track demo tape in mid-1994 which brought them to the attention of several independent labels. A 7-inch split EP with Ancient Rites was then released by the underground label Afterdark Records. After the label's demise, Evil Alliance Records (a sub-label of Osmose Productions ) released Enthroned's first full-length release, Prophecies of Pagan Fire . Shortly thereafter, the band enlisted second guitarist Nornagest . Eventually, Tseboath was replaced by Nebiros. In 1996, along with Ancient Rites and Bewitched, Enthroned
Enthroned
began an extensive tour of Europe
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Jihad
JIHAD (English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: جهاد‎‎ jihād ) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to convert unbelievers, or efforts toward the moral betterment of society, though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law , the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi
Sufi
and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups
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Juju
JUJU or JU-JU (French : joujou, lit. 'plaything') is a spiritual belief system incorporating objects, such as amulets, and spells used in religious practice, as part of witchcraft in West Africa
West Africa
. The term has been applied to traditional West African religions . The term "juju" and the practices associated with it, travelled to the Americas
Americas
from West Africa
West Africa
with the influx of slaves via the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
and still survives in some areas, particularly among the various groups of Maroons , who have preserved their African traditions. OVERVIEW Juju
Juju
is sometimes used to enforce a contract or ensure compliance. In a typical scenario, a juju spell will be placed on a Nigerian woman before she is trafficked into Europe for a life in prostitution, to ensure that she will pay back her traffickers and won't escape
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Gambia River
The GAMBIA RIVER (formerly known as the RIVER GAMBRA) is a major river in West Africa
West Africa
, running 1,120 kilometres (700 mi) from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea
Guinea
westward through Senegal
Senegal
and the Gambia to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
at the city of Banjul
Banjul
. It is navigable for about half that length. The river is strongly associated with The Gambia , the smallest country in mainland Africa, which consists of little more than the downstream half of the river and its two banks. From the Fouta Djallon, the river runs northwest into the Tambacounda Region of Senegal, where it flows through the Parc National du Niokolo Koba , then is joined by the Nieri Ko and Koulountou before entering the Gambia at Fatoto
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Cosmopolitanism
COSMOPOLITANISM is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community , based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a COSMOPOLITAN or COSMOPOLITE. A cosmopolitan community might be based on an inclusive morality, a shared economic relationship, or a political structure that encompasses different nations. In a cosmopolitan community individuals from different places (e.g. nation-states) form relationships of mutual respect. As an example, Kwame Anthony Appiah
Kwame Anthony Appiah
suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations (physical, economic, etc.) enter relationships of mutual respect despite their differing beliefs (religious, political, etc.)
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River Delta
A RIVER DELTA is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean , sea , estuary , lake , reservoir , or (more rarely) another river that cannot transport away the supplied sediment. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment. The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers. They can provide coastline defense and can impact drinking water supply. They are also ecologically important, with different species assemblages depending on their landscape position
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Edinburgh University Press
EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals , based in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland
Scotland
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Publishing * 2.1 Ebooks * 2.2 Open access * 3 Business * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press was founded in the 1940s and became a wholly owned subsidiary of the University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
in 1992. Books and journals published by the Press carry the imprimatur of The University of Edinburgh. All proposed publishing projects are appraised and approved by the Press Committee, which consists of academics from the university. Since August 2004, the Press has had Charitable Status
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Peanut
The PEANUT, also known as the GROUNDNUT and the GOOBER and taxonomically classified as ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers. It is classified as both a grain legume and, because of its high oil content, an oil crop. World annual production of shelled peanuts was 42 million tonnes in 2014. Atypically among crop plants, peanut pods develop underground rather than aboveground. It is this characteristic that the botanist Linnaeus used to assign the specific name hypogaea, which means "under the earth." As a legume, the peanut belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae
Fabaceae
; this is also known as Leguminosae , and commonly known as the bean, or pea, family. Like most other legumes, peanuts harbor symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules
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Mangrove
A MANGROVE is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water . The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics , mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S.The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories. Mangroves are salt tolerant trees, also called halophytes , and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen (anoxic) conditions of waterlogged mud
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Sodium Chloride
SODIUM CHLORIDE /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/ , also known as SALT or HALITE , is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NACL, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g·mol−1, respectively, 100 g of NaCl contain 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium
Sodium
chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms . In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative . Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather
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