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Saloum
The Kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
(Serer language: Saluum or Saalum) was a Serer/Wolof[3] kingdom in present-day Senegal. Its kings may have been of Mandinka/ Kaabu
Kaabu
origin.[3] The capital of Saloum
Saloum
was the city of Kahone. It was a sister kingdom of Sine. Their history, geography and culture were intricately linked and it was common to refer to them as the Sine-Saloum.Contents1 History 2 People and language 3 Commerce and geography 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit]Apartment of the Maad Saloum
Maad Saloum
(king of Saloum) in 1821.Carte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853): an ethnic map of Senegal
Senegal
at the time of French colonialism
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Marabout
A marabout (Arabic: مُرابِط‎, translit. murābiṭ, lit. 'one who is attached/garrisoned') is a Muslim religious leader and teacher[1] in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb. The marabout is often a scholar of the Qur'an, or religious teacher. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms, Sufi Murshids ("Guides"), or leaders of religious communities
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Mangrove
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories.[1] Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action
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Tumuli
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb
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Gambia River
The Gambia
The Gambia
River
River
(formerly known as the River
River
Gambra) is a major river in West Africa, running 1,120 kilometres (700 mi) from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea
Guinea
westward through Senegal
Senegal
and the Gambia to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
at the city of Banjul. It is navigable for about half that length. The river is strongly associated with The Gambia, the smallest country in mainland Africa, which consists of little more than the downstream half of the river and its two banks. From the Fouta Djallon, the river runs northwest into the Tambacounda Region of Senegal, where it flows through the Parc National du Niokolo Koba, then is joined by the Nieri Ko and Koulountou before entering the Gambia at Fatoto
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Jihad
Jihad
Jihad
(English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3][4] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to conve
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Enthroned
Enthroned
Enthroned
is a black metal band formed in Charleroi, Belgium, in 1993 by Cernunnos. He soon recruited guitarist Tsebaoth and a vocalist from grindcore/black metal band Hecate who stayed until the end of December 1993. Then bassist/vocalist Sabathan joined. The band released a five-track demo tape in mid-1994 which brought them to the attention of several independent labels. A 7-inch split EP with Ancient Rites was then released by the underground label Afterdark Records. After the label's demise, Evil Alliance Records (a sub-label of Osmose Productions) released Enthroned's first full-length release, Prophecies of Pagan Fire. Shortly thereafter, the band enlisted second guitarist Nornagest
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Senegambia
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia
The Gambia
refused to move closer toward union.Contents1 History 2 Problems with Senegambia's border 3 Birth of the Confederation 4 End of the Confederation 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] As a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region. Competition between the French and the English began in the 16th century when both started to establish trading centers
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Conservatism
Conservatism
Conservatism
is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, human imperfection, organic society, hierarchy and authority and property rights.[1] Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as monarchy, religion, parliamentary government and property rights with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity[2] while the more extreme elements called reactionaries oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".[3][4] The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand[5] during the period of Bourbon restoration
Bourbon restoration
that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution
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Cosmopolitanism
Cosmopolitanism
Cosmopolitanism
is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. A cosmopolitan community might be based on an inclusive morality, a shared economic relationship, or a political structure that encompasses different nations. In a cosmopolitan community individuals from different places (e.g. nation-states) form relationships of mutual respect
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Mandinka People
The Mandinka (also known as Mandenka, Mandinko, Mandingo, Manding or Malinke)[9] are an African ethnic group with an estimated global population of 11 million (the other three largest ethnic groups in Africa
Africa
being the unrelated Fula, Hausa and Songhai peoples). The Mandinka are the descendants of the Mali
Mali
Empire, which rose to power in the 13th century under the rule of the Malinké/Maninka king Sundiata Keita. The Mandinka are one ethnic group within the larger linguistic family of the Mandé
Mandé
peoples, who account for more than 90 million people. (Other Mande peoples include the Dyula, Bozo, Bissa and Bambara). Originally from Mali, the Mandinka gained their independence from previous empires in the 13th century and founded an empire which stretched across Africa
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River Delta
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.[1][2] This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or (more rarely) another river that cannot transport away the supplied sediment. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment.[3][4] The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers
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Sodium Chloride
Sodium
Sodium
chloride /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/,[2] also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium
Sodium
chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses
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Juju
Juju
Juju
or ju-ju (French: joujou, lit. 'plaything')[1][2] is a spiritual belief system incorporating objects, such as amulets, and spells used in religious practice, as part of witchcraft in West Africa. The term has been applied to traditional West African religions.[3] The term "juju" and the practices associated with it, travelled to the Americas
Americas
from West Africa
West Africa
with the influx of slaves via the Atlantic slave trade and still survives in some areas, particularly among the various groups of Maroons, who have preserved their African traditions. Overview[edit] Juju
Juju
is sometimes used to enforce a contract or ensure compliance
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Peanut
The peanut, also known as the groundnut and the goober[2] and taxonomically classified as Arachis
Arachis
hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers. It is classified as both a grain legume[3] and, because of its high oil content, an oil crop.[4] World annual production of shelled peanuts was 42 million tonnes in 2014. Atypically among crop plants, peanut pods develop underground rather than aboveground
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