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Salem Witchcraft Trials
The Salem witch trials
Salem witch trials
were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. The trials resulted in the executions of twenty people, fourteen of them women, and all but one by hanging. Five others (including two infant children) died in prison. Twelve other women had previously been executed in Massachusetts and Connecticut during the 17th century. Despite being generally known as the Salem Witch Trials, the preliminary hearings in 1692 were conducted in several towns: Salem Village (now Danvers), Salem Town, Ipswich, and Andover. The most infamous trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town. The episode is one of Colonial America's most notorious cases of mass hysteria
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Salem Witches (baseball)
The Salem Witches were a baseball team of the New England League, a mid-level league in American minor league baseball. The Witches played a total of five non-consecutive seasons.Location: Salem, MA League: New England League 1888, 1926-1928, 1930 Affiliation: Ballpark:Year-by-year record[edit]Year Record Finish Manager Playoffs1888 36-34 -- John Tofani Team disbanded August 31926 38-3 1stnone Rusev (6-8) moved to Salem June 31927 42-50 6th Dodge's1928 51-50 5th Stuffy McInnis1930 21-9 1st Sam Post League disbanded June 22External links[edit][1]This article about a baseball team is a stub
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Grand Remonstrance
The Grand Remonstrance
Grand Remonstrance
was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England
Charles I of England
by the English Parliament on 1 December 1641, but passed by the House of Commons on 22 November 1641, during the Long Parliament; it was one of the chief events which were to precipitate the English Civil War.Contents1 Background 2 The Grand Remonstrance 3 The King's response 4 References 5 External links 6 Bibliography 7 External linksBackground[edit] Relations between King and Parliament had been uneasy since 1625, when Charles I, King of England married the French Catholic
Catholic
Queen Henrietta Maria. In 1626 Charles had dissolved Parliament in order to prevent it impeaching his favourite, the influential Duke of Buckingham
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History Of The Puritans Under King James I
Under James I of England, the Puritan
Puritan
movement co-existed with the conforming Church of England
Church of England
in what was generally an accepted form of episcopal Protestant
Protestant
religion
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History Of The Puritans Under King Charles I
Under Charles I, the Puritans
Puritans
became a political force as well as a religious tendency in the country. Opponents of the royal prerogative became allies of Puritan reformers, who saw the Church of England moving in a direction opposite to what they wanted, and objected to increased Roman Faithful influence both at Court and (as they saw it) within the Church. After the First English Civil War
English Civil War
political power was held by various factions of Puritans. The trials and executions of William Laud
William Laud
and then King Charles himself were decisive moves shaping British history. While in the short term Puritan power was consolidated by the Parliamentary armed forces and Oliver Cromwell, in the same years, the argument for theocracy failed to convince enough of the various groupings, and there was no Puritan religious settlement to match Cromwell's gradual assumption of dictatorial powers
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History Of The Puritans From 1649
From 1649 to 1660, Puritans
Puritans
in England were allied to the state power held by the military regime, headed by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
until his death in 1658. They broke into numerous sects, of which the Presbyterian group comprised most of the clergy, but was deficient in political power since Cromwell's sympathies were with the Independents
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History Of The Puritans In North America
In the early 17th century, thousands of English Puritans
Puritans
settled in North America, mainly in New England. Puritans
Puritans
were generally members of the Church of England
Church of England
who believed that the Church of England
Church of England
was insufficiently reformed, retaining too much of its Roman Catholic doctrinal roots, and who therefore opposed royal ecclesiastical policy under Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
of England, James I
James I
of England, and Charles I of England
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Scrooby Congregation
The Scrooby
Scrooby
Congregation were English Protestant separatists who lived near Scrooby, on the outskirts of Bawtry, a small market town at the border of South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and Nottinghamshire. In 1607/8 the Congregation emigrated to the Netherlands
Netherlands
in search of the freedom to worship as they chose. They founded the "English separatist church at Leiden", one of several English separatist groups in the Netherlands
Netherlands
at the time.Contents1 History 2 Emigration 3 At Leiden 4 Historiography 5 See also 6 References 7 NotesHistory[edit] Richard Clyfton was rector of Babworth, from 1605 under suspicion of nonconformity. Suspended, he continued to preach at Bawtry, near Scrooby
Scrooby
though just over the county boundary in Yorkshire
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Trial Of Archbishop Laud
The trial of William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, took place in stages in the first half of the 1640s, and resulted in his execution on treason charges. At first an impeachment, the parliamentary legal proceedings became an act of attainder. Arrested in late 1640, Laud was held initially for tactical reasons in the struggle between Charles I of England
Charles I of England
and the English parliament. When charges were actually brought, their main thrust was that Laud had run an ecclesiastical state within a state. This was supposed to have happened under the cover of the personal rule of the king.[1] The prosecution case was argued from the standpoint of Erastianism.[2] The trial has been called a "travesty of justice", in that Laud was clearly innocent of the major charges, which were not seriously documented even given the run of his private papers. Testimony against him was subject to tampering
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Marian Exiles
The Marian Exiles were English Protestants who fled to the continent during the reign of the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I and King Philip.[1][2][3] They settled chiefly in Protestant countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland
Switzerland
and Germany, and also in France,[citation needed] Italy[citation needed] and Poland.[citation needed]Contents1 Exile communities 2 Strasbourg 3 Frankfurt3.1 Troubles at Frankfurt4 Geneva 5 See also 6 References 7 SourcesExile communities[edit] According to English historian John Strype, more than 800 Protestants fled to the continent, mainly to the Low Countries, Germany, and Switzerland, and joined with reformed churches there or formed their own congregations. A few exiles went to Scotland, Denmark, and other Scandinavian countries. Notable English exile communities were located in the cities of Emden, Strasbourg, Cologne, Wesel, Duisburg, Worms, Basel, Frankfurt, Aarau, Zürich, Geneva, Padua, and Venice
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Vestments Controversy
The vestments controversy or vestarian controversy arose in the English Reformation, ostensibly concerning vestments or clerical dress. It was initiated by John Hooper's rejection of clerical vestments in the Church of England
Church of England
under Edward VI, and was later revived under Elizabeth I
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Martin Marprelate
Martin Marprelate (sometimes printed as Martin Mar-prelate and Marre–Martin)[1][2] was the name used by the anonymous author or authors of the seven Marprelate tracts that circulated illegally in England in the years 1588 and 1589
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Millenary Petition
The Millenary Petition
Millenary Petition
was a list of requests given to James I by Puritans
Puritans
in 1603 when he was travelling to London in order to claim the English throne. It is claimed, but not proven, that this petition had 1,000 signatures of Puritan ministers
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English Civil War
Parliamentarian victoryExecution of King Charles I Exile of Charles II Establishment of the republican Commonwealth under Oliver CromwellBelligerentsEnglish, Scottish, Welsh and Irish Royalists English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish ParliamentariansCommanders and leadersKing Charles I   Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
of the Rhine Charles IIEarl of Essex Thomas Fairfax Oliver CromwellCasualties and losses50,000[1] 34,000[1]127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)[a]v t eEnglish Civil WarFirst Second ThirdThe English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's government
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Merton Thesis
The Merton thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton
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Restoration (England)
The Restoration of the English monarchy
English monarchy
took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II
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