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Sadhvi
A SADHU ( IAST
IAST
: sādhu (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled SADDHU, is a religious ascetic , mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism
Jainism
who has renounced the worldly life. They are sometimes alternatively referred to as sannyasi or vairagi. It literally means one who practises a ″sadhana″ or keenly follows a path of spiritual discipline. Although the vast majority of sādhus are yogīs , not all yogīs are sādhus. The sādhu is solely dedicated to achieving mokṣa (liberation), the fourth and final aśrama (stage of life), through meditation and contemplation of Brahman
Brahman
. Sādhus often wear simple clothing, such saffron -coloured clothing in Hinduism, white or nothing in Jainism, symbolising their sannyāsa (renunciation of worldly possessions)
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Bhakti Yoga
BHAKTI YOGA, also called BHAKTI MARGA (literally the path of Bhakti ), is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism
Hinduism
focused on loving devotion towards a personal god . It is one of the paths in the spiritual practices of Hindus, others being Jnana yoga and Karma
Karma
yoga . The tradition has ancient roots. Bhakti
Bhakti
is mentioned in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad where it simply means participation, devotion and love for any endeavor. Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga as one of three spiritual paths for salvation is discussed in depth by the Bhagavad Gita . The personal god varies with the devotee. It may include a god or goddess such as Ganesha, Krishna, Radha, Rama, Sita, Vishnu, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Shiva, Parvati, Durga
Durga
among others
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Dāna
DāNA ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: दान) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali
Pali
word that connotes the virtue of generosity, charity or giving of alms in Indian philosophies. It is alternatively transliterated as daana. In Hinduism
Hinduism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
and Sikhism
Sikhism
, dāna is the practice of cultivating generosity. It can take the form of giving to an individual in distress or need. It can also take the form of philanthropic public projects that empower and help many. According to historical records, dāna is an ancient practice in Indian traditions, tracing back to Vedic traditions
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Jnana Yoga
JñāNA YOGA, also known as JNANAMARGA, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism that emphasizes the "path of knowledge", also known as the "path of self-realization". It is one of the three classical paths (margas ) for moksha (salvation, liberation). The other two are karma yoga (path of action, karmamarga) and bhakti yoga (path of loving devotion to a personal god, bhaktimarga). Later, new movements within Hinduism added raja yoga as the fourth spiritual path, but this is not universally accepted as distinct to other three. The jnana yoga is a spiritual practice that pursues knowledge with questions such as "who am I, what am I" among others. The practitioner studies usually with the aid of a counsellor (guru ), meditates, reflects, and reaches liberating insights on the nature of his own Self (Atman, soul) and its relationship to the metaphysical concept called Brahman in Hinduism
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Karma Yoga
KARMA YOGA, also called KARMA MARGA, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism , one based on the "yoga of action". To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer. It is one of the paths in the spiritual practices of Hindus, others being Jnana yoga (path of knowledge) and Bhakti yoga (path of loving devotion to a personal god). The three paths are not mutually exclusive in Hinduism, but the relative emphasis between Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga varies by the individual. Of the paths to spiritual liberation in Hinduism, karma yoga is the path of unselfish action. It teaches that a spiritual seeker should act according to dharma , without being attached to the fruits or personal consequences. Karma Yoga, states the Bhagavad Gita, purifies the mind
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Astika
VEDANTA * Advaita * Vishishtadvaita * Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta * Bhedabheda *
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Mitahara
MITAHARA (Sanskrit: मिताहार, Mitāhāra) literally means the habit of moderate food. Mitahara is also a concept in Indian philosophy, particularly Yoga , that integrates awareness about food, drink, balanced diet and consumption habits and its effect on one’s body and mind. It is one of the ten yamas in ancient Indian texts. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Literature * 2.1 The virtue of mitahara * 2.2 Dietectics and mitahara * 3 Related concepts * 4 See also * 5 References DEFINITION Mitahara is a Sanskrit combination word, from Mita (मित, moderate) and Ahara (आहार, taking food, diet), which together mean moderate diet. In Yoga and other ancient texts, it represents a concept linking nutrition to the health of one’s body and mind
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Shaucha
SHAUCHA (Sanskrit: शौच, also spelled Saucha, Śauca) literally means purity, cleanliness and clearness. It refers to purity of mind, speech and body. Saucha is one of the Niyamas of Yoga . It is discussed in many ancient Indian texts such as the Mahabharata and Patanjali\'s Yoga Sutras . It is a virtue in Hinduism and Jainism. Saucha includes outer purity of body as well as inner purity of mind. The concept of Saucha is synonymous with Shuddhi (शुद्धि). LePage states that Saucha in yoga is on many levels, and deepens as an understanding and evolution of self increases. Shaucha, or holistic purity of the body, is considered essential for health, happiness and general well-being. External purity is achieved through daily ablutions, while internal purity is cultivated through physical exercises, including asana (postures) and pranayama (breathing techniques)
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Ārjava
ĀRJAVA (Sanskrit: आर्जव) literally means sincerity, straightness and non-hypocrisy. It is one of the ten Yamas in ancient Hindu and Jaina texts. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Literature * 3 See also * 4 References DEFINITIONĀrjava means straightness, sincerity and harmony in one’s thought, words and actions towards oneself and towards others. Kane translates arjava as straightforwardness. It is explained in ancient Indian texts as “self-restraint from hypocrisy", and "the absence of hypocrisy”. It is included as one of several ethical virtuous restraints in an individual's path to spirituality. The Maharashtrian poet Vāmana in Avigita, at xvi.1, posits arjava is a form of honesty and purity in a person, and an essential virtue so that one may treat everyone equally, whether that other is one’s child, wife, relative, friend, a stranger, someone hostile or oneself without any discrimination
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Santosha
SANTOSHA (skt. संतोष saṃtoṣa, santōṣḥ) literally means "contentment, satisfaction". It is also an ethical concept in Indian philosophy, particularly Yoga
Yoga
, where it is included as one of the Niyamas by Patanjali
Patanjali
. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Discussion * 3 Literature * 4 Mythology * 5 The desire paradox * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading DEFINITIONSantosha, sometimes spelled Santosa, is a combination word in Sanskrit, derived from Saṃ (सं, सम्) and Tosha (तोष, तुष्, tuṣh). SaM, means "completely", "altogether" or "entirely", and Tosha, "contentment", "satisfaction", "acceptance", "being comfortable". Combined, the word Santosha
Santosha
means "completely content with, or satisfied with, accepting and comfortable"
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Tapas (Sanskrit)
TAPAS is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means "to heat". It also connotes certain spiritual practices in Indian religions. In Jainism
Jainism
, it refers to asceticism (austerities, body mortification); in Buddhism to spiritual practices including meditation and self-discipline; and in the different traditions within Hinduism
Hinduism
it refers to a spectrum of practices ranging from asceticism, inner cleansing to self-discipline. The Tapas practice often involves solitude, and is a part of monastic practices that are believed to be a means to moksha (liberation, salvation)
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Svādhyāya
SVāDHYāYA ( Devanagari : स्वाध्याय) is a Sanskrit term which literally means "one's own reading" and "self-study". It is also a broader concept with several meanings. In various schools of Hinduism , Svadhyaya is a Niyama (virtuous observance) connoting introspection and "study of self". The term also means the self-study and recitation of the Vedas and other sacred books. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology, meaning and usage * 2 Svadhyaya in ancient literature * 2.1 Upanishads * 2.2 Other scriptures * 3 Svadhyaya as a historical practice * 3.1 Exceptions * 4 Svadhyaya as a Niyama * 5 Notes * 6 References ETYMOLOGY, MEANING AND USAGE Svādhyāya is a compound Sanskrit word composed of svā (स्वा) + adhyāya (अध्याय). Adhyāya means "a lesson, lecture, chapter; reading"
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Samkhya
VEDANTA * Advaita * Vishishtadvaita * Dvaita Vedanta * Bhedabheda * Dvaitadvaita * Achintya Bheda Abheda *
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Yoga (philosophy)
VEDANTA * Advaita * Vishishtadvaita * Dvaita Vedanta * Bhedabheda * Dvaitadvaita * Achintya Bheda Abheda *
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Pasupata
Saiddhantika * Siddhantism Non - Saiddhantika * Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
* Pratyabhijna
Pratyabhijna
* Vama * Dakshina *
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Vishishtadvaita
VISHISHTADVAITA ( IAST
IAST
Viśiṣṭādvaita ; Sanskrit : विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
. Vedanta
Vedanta
literally means the end of the Vedas
Vedas
. VishishtAdvaita (literally "Advaita with uniqueness; qualifications") is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta philosophy. It is non-dualism of the qualified whole, in which Brahman alone exists, but is characterized by multiplicity. It can be described as qualified monism or qualified non-dualism or attributive monism . It is a school of Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy which believes in all diversity subsuming to an underlying unity
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