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Spdif
S/PDIF
S/PDIF
(Sony/ Philips
Philips
Digital Interface)[1][2] is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances. The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fibre optic cable with TOSLINK
TOSLINK
connectors
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TOSLINK
TOSLINK
TOSLINK
(from Toshiba
Toshiba
Link[2]) is a standardized optical fiber connector system.[3] Also known generically as an "optical audio cable" or just "optical cable", its most common use is in consumer audio equipment (via a "digital optical" socket), where it carries a digital audio stream from components such as CD and DVD
DVD
players, DAT recorders, computers, and modern video game consoles, to an AV receiver that can decode two channels of uncompressed lossless PCM audio or compressed 5.1/7.1 surround sound such as Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus or DTS-HD High Resolution Audio
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Digital Audio Tape
Digital Audio Tape
Digital Audio Tape
(DAT or R-DAT) is a signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony
Sony
and introduced in 1987.[1] In appearance it is similar to a Compact Cassette, using 3.81 mm / 0.15" (commonly referred to as 4 mm) magnetic tape enclosed in a protective shell, but is roughly half the size at 73 mm × 54 mm × 10.5 mm. As the name suggests, the recording is digital rather than analog. DAT has the ability to record at higher, equal or lower sampling rates than a CD (48, 44.1 or 32 kHz sampling rate respectively) at 16 bits quantization
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Composite Video
Composite video
Composite video
(one channel) is an analog video transmission (without audio) that carries standard definition video typically at 480i
480i
or 576i
576i
resolution. Video information is encoded on one channel, unlike the higher-quality S-video
S-video
(two channels) and the even higher-quality component video (three or more channels). Composite video
Composite video
mostly comes in three standard formats: NTSC, PAL, and SECAM
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Ohm (unit)
The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm. Although several empirically derived standard units for expressing electrical resistance were developed in connection with early telegraphy practice, the British Association for the Advancement of Science proposed a unit derived from existing units of mass, length and time and of a convenient size for practical work as early as 1861. The definition of the ohm was revised several times
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Balanced Line
In telecommunications and professional audio, a balanced line or balanced signal pair is a transmission line consisting of two conductors of the same type, each of which have equal impedances along their lengths and equal impedances to ground and to other circuits.[1] The chief advantage of the balanced line format is good rejection of external noise when fed to a differential amplifier. Common forms of balanced line are twin-lead, used for radio frequency signals and twisted pair, used for lower frequencies. They are to be contrasted to unbalanced lines, such as coaxial cable, which is designed to have its return conductor connected to ground, or circuits whose return conductor actually is ground. Balanced and unbalanced circuits can be interconnected using a transformer called a balun. Circuits driving balanced lines must themselves be balanced to maintain the benefits of balance
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Twisted Pair
Twisted pair
Twisted pair
cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility. Compared to a single conductor or an untwisted balanced pair, a twisted pair reduces electromagnetic radiation, crosstalk between neighboring pairs and improves rejection of external electromagnetic interference. It was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.[1]Contents1 Explanation 2 History 3 Unshielded twisted pair 4 Cable shielding 5 Common types5.1 Analog telephone 5.2 Building infrastructure6 Solid-core cable vs. stranded cable 7 Advantages 8 Disadvantages 9 Less common variants 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksExplanation[edit] In a balanced line, the two wires carry equal and opposite signals, and the destination detects the difference between the two. This is known as differential signaling
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Jitter
In electronics and telecommunications, jitter is the deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal, often in relation to a reference clock signal. In clock recovery applications it is called timing jitter.[1] Jitter
Jitter
is a significant, and usually undesired, factor in the design of almost all communications links. Jitter
Jitter
can be quantified in the same terms as all time-varying signals, e.g., root mean square (RMS), or peak-to-peak displacement. Also like other time-varying signals, jitter can be expressed in terms of spectral density. Jitter
Jitter
period is the interval between two times of maximum effect (or minimum effect) of a signal characteristic that varies regularly with time. Jitter
Jitter
frequency, the more commonly quoted figure, is its inverse
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BNC Connector
Outer, typical:0.570 in (14.5 mm), male 0.436 in (11.1 mm), femaleCable CoaxialPassband Typically 0–4 GHzThe BNC (Bayonet Neill–Concelman) connector is a miniature quick connect/disconnect radio frequency connector used for coaxial cable. It features two bayonet lugs on the female connector; mating is fully achieved with a quarter turn of the coupling nut. BNC connectors are used with miniature-to-subminiature coaxial cable in radio, television, and other radio-frequency electronic equipment, test instruments, and video signals. The BNC was commonly used for early computer networks, including ARCnet, the IBM PC Network, and the 10BASE2
10BASE2
variant of Ethernet. BNC connectors are made to match the characteristic impedance of cable at either 50 ohms or 75 ohms
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Biphase Mark Code
Differential Manchester encoding
Differential Manchester encoding
is a line code in which data and clock signals are combined to form a single 2-level self-synchronizing data stream. In various specific applications, this line code is also called by various other names, including Biphase Mark Code (CC), Frequency Modulation (FM), F2F (frequency/double frequency), Aiken Biphase, and Conditioned diphase.[1] It is a differential encoding, using the presence or absence of transitions to indicate logical value
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ ( listen) ASS-kee),[1]:6 abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication
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Serial Copy Management System
The Serial Copy Management System (SCMS) is a copy protection scheme that was created in response to the digital audio tape (DAT) invention, in order to prevent DAT recorders from making second-generation or serial copies. SCMS sets a "copy" bit in all copies, which prevents anyone from making further copies of those first copies. It does not, however, limit the number of first-generation copies made from a master. SCMS was also included in consumer MiniDisc
MiniDisc
and Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) players and recorders. With the demise of these formats, SCMS is not in widespread use
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Sample Rate
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal
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Bitrate
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.[1] The bit rate is quantified using the bits per second unit (symbol: "bit/s"), often in conjunction with an SI prefix
SI prefix
such as "kilo" (1 kbit/s = 1,000 bit/s), "mega" (1  Mbit/s = 1,000 kbit/s), "giga" (1 
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XLR Connector
The XLR connector
XLR connector
is a style of electrical connector, primarily found on professional audio, video, and stage lighting equipment. The connectors are circular in design and have between 3 and 7 pins. They are most commonly associated with balanced audio interconnection, including AES3
AES3
digital audio, but are also used for lighting control, low-voltage power supplies, and other applications
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Bit
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit)[1] is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications. A binary digit can have only one of two values, and may be physically represented with a two-state device. These state values are most commonly represented as either a 0or1. The two values of a binary digit can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), algebraic signs (+/−), activation states (on/off), or any other two-valued attribute. The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program
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