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SOCl2
Thionyl chloride
Thionyl chloride
is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2. It is a moderately volatile colourless liquid with an unpleasant acrid odour. Thionyl chloride
Thionyl chloride
is primarily used as a chlorinating reagent, with approximately 45,000 tonnes (50,000 short tons) per year being produced during the early 1990s.[5] It is toxic, reacts with water, and is also listed under the Chemical Weapons Convention as it may be used for the production of chemical weapons. Thionyl chloride
Thionyl chloride
is sometimes confused with sulfuryl chloride, SO2Cl2, but the properties of these compounds differ significantly
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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GHS Precautionary Statements
Precautionary statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases giving advice about the correct handling of chemical substances and mixtures, which can be translated into different languages.[1][2] As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known S-phrases, which they are intended to replace. Precautionary statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:[3]an identification of the product; one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary) a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary hazard statements, indicating the nature and degree of the risks posed by the product the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)Each precautionary statement is designated a code, starting with the letter P and followed by three digits
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Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom. Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.[1][2][3] The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e
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Debye
The debye (symbol: D) (/dɛˈbaɪ/;[1] Dutch: [dəˈbɛiə]) is a CGS unit[2] (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole moment[note 1] named in honour of the physicist Peter J. W. Debye. It is defined as 1×10−18 statcoulomb-centimetre.[note 2] Historically the debye was defined as the dipole moment resulting from two charges of opposite sign but an equal magnitude of 10−10 statcoulomb[note 3] (generally called e.s.u. (electrostatic unit) in older literature), which were separated by 1 ångström.[note 4] This gave a convenient unit for molecular dipole moments.1 D  = 10−18 statC·cm= 10−10 esu·Å[note 2]= ​1⁄299,792,458×10−21 C·m[note 5]≈ 3.33564×10−30 C·m≈ 1.10048498×1023 qPlP≈ 0.393430307 ea0[3]≈ 0.20819434 eÅ≈ 0.020819434 e·nmTypical dipole moments for simple diatomic molecules are in the range of 0 to 11 D. Symmetric homoatomic species, e.g
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Specific Heat Capacity
Heat
Heat
capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.[1] The unit of heat capacity is joule per kelvin J K displaystyle mathrm tfrac J K , or kilogram metre squared per kelvin second squared k g ⋅ m 2 K ⋅ s 2 displaystyle mathrm tfrac kgcdot m^ 2 Kcdot s^ 2 in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The dimensional form is L2MT−2Θ−1
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Standard Molar Entropy
In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance under a standard state (not STP). The standard molar entropy is usually given the symbol S°, and has units of joules per mole kelvin (J mol−1 K−1). Unlike standard enthalpies of formation, the value of S° is absolute. That is, an element in its standard state has a definite, nonzero value of S at room temperature. The entropy of a pure crystalline structure can be 0 J mol−1 K−1 only at 0 K, according to the third law of thermodynamics. However, this presupposes that the material forms a 'perfect crystal' without any frozen in entropy (defects, dislocations), which is never completely true because crystals always grow at a finite temperature
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Standard Enthalpy Change Of Formation
The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states. The standard pressure value po = 105 Pa (= 100 kPa = 1 bar) is recommended by IUPAC, although prior to 1982 the value 1.00 atm (101.325 kPa) was used.[1] There is no standard temperature. Its symbol is ΔfH⊖. The superscript Plimsoll on this symbol indicates that the process has occurred under standard conditions at the specified temperature (usually 25 °C or 298.15 K)
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Worker Safety And Health
Occupational safety and health
Occupational safety and health
(OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health,[1] or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. These terms also refer to the goals of this field,[2] so their use in the sense of this article was originally an abbreviation of occupational safety and health program/department etc. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment.[3] OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment
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Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
is a corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. A colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water, when it reacts with an organic base it forms a hydrochloride salt. Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan
Jabir ibn Hayyan
around the year 800 AD.[5][6] Hydrochloric acid was historically called acidum salis, muriatic acid, and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock salt and "green vitriol" (Iron(II) sulfate) (by Basilius Valentinus
Basilius Valentinus
in the 15th century) and later from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid (by Johann Rudolph Glauber
Johann Rudolph Glauber
in the 17th century). Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius
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GHS Hazard Pictograms
Hazard pictograms form part of the international Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Two sets of pictograms are included within the GHS: one for the labelling of containers and for workplace hazard warnings, and a second for use during the transport of dangerous goods. Either one or the other is chosen, depending on the target audience, but the two are not used together.[1] The two sets of pictograms use the same symbols for the same hazards, although certain symbols are not required for transport pictograms
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Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations
United Nations
that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world. Core elements of the GHS include standardized hazard testing criteria, universal warning pictograms, and harmonized safety data sheets which provide users of dangerous goods with a host of information. The system acts as a complement to the UN Numbered system of regulated hazmat transport. Implementation is managed through the UN Secretariat
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GHS Hazard Statement
Hazard statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures that can be translated into different languages.[1][2] As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known R-phrases, which they are intended to replace. Hazard statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:[3]an identification of the product one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary) a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment) the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer).Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits
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NFPA 704
"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association. First "tentatively adopted as a guide" in 1960,[1] and revised several times since then, it defines the colloquial "fire diamond" or "safety square" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by hazardous materials. This helps determine what, if any, special equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken during the initial stages of an emergency response.Contents1 Codes 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksCodes[edit]The four divisions are typically color-coded with red indicating flammability, blue indicating level of health hazard, yellow for chemical reactivity, and white containing codes for special hazards. Each of health, flammability and reactivity is rated on a scale from 0 (no hazard) to 4 (severe risk)
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Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has higher viscosity than water.[2] Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving at different velocities. In simple terms, viscosity means friction between the molecules of fluid. When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving
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Flash Point
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed
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