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SDRAM
Synchronous dynamic random-access memory
Synchronous dynamic random-access memory
(SDRAM) is any dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) where the operation of its external pin interface is coordinated by an externally supplied clock signal. DRAM integrated circuits (ICs) produced from the early 1970s to mid-1990s used an asynchronous interface, in which input control signals have a direct effect on internal functions only delayed by the trip across its semiconductor pathways. S DRAM
DRAM
has a synchronous interface, whereby changes on control inputs are recognised after a rising edge of its clock input. In S DRAM
DRAM
families standardized by JEDEC, the clock signal controls the stepping of an internal finite state machine that responds to incoming commands. These commands can be pipelined to improve performance, with previously started operations completing while new commands are received
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Nanosecond
A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit
SI unit
of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10−9 seconds. The term combines the prefix nano- with the basic unit for one-sixtieth of a minute. A nanosecond is equal to 1000 picoseconds or ​1⁄1000 microsecond. Time units ranging between 10−8 and 10−7 seconds are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of nanoseconds. Time units of this granularity are commonly encountered in telecommunications, pulsed lasers, and related aspects of electronics. Common measurements[edit]0.5 nanoseconds – the half-life of beryllium-13. 0.96 nanoseconds – 100 Gigabit Ethernet
100 Gigabit Ethernet
Interpacket gap 1.0 nanosecond – cycle time of an electromagnetic wave with a frequency of 1 GHz (1×109 hertz). 1.0 nanosecond – electromagnetic wavelength of 1 light-nanosecond
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Cache Line
Cache, caching, or caché may refer to: Hoard
Hoard
or cache, a collection of artifacts Cache (biology)
Cache (biology)
or hoarding, a food storing behavior of animals
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Megabyte
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB. The unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 (106) in the International System of Units (SI).[1] Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information. This definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes (220 B), a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes,[2] in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte (MiB)
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Logic Level
In digital circuits, a logic level is one of a finite number of states that a digital signal can inhabit. Logic levels are usually represented by the voltage difference between the signal and ground, although other standards exist. The range of voltage levels that represents each state depends on the logic family being used.Contents1 2-level logic1.1 Active state 1.2 Logic voltage levels2 3-level logic 3 4-level logic 4 9-level logic 5 See also 6 References 7 External links2-level logic[edit] In binary logic the two levels are logical high and logical low, which generally correspond to binary numbers 1 and 0 respectively. Signals with one of these two levels can be used in boolean algebra for digital circuit design or analysis. Active state[edit] The use of either the higher or the lower voltage level to represent either logic state is arbitrary. The two options are active high and active low
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Sound Card
 via one of:PCI ISA USB IEEE 1394 IBM PC Parallel Port PCI-E MCA (rare) PCMCIA
PCMCIA
interfaces (PC Card, Expresscard)Line in or out: via one of:Analogue - phone, RCA or DIN connector Digital - RCA, TOSLink or AES/EBUMicrophone via one of:Phone connector PIN connectorCommon manufacturers Creative Labs
Creative Labs
(and subsidiary E-mu Systems) Realtek C-Media MARIAN digital audio electronics M-Audio Turtle Beach ASUSA sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications. Sound functionality can also be integrated onto the motherboard, using components similar to those found on plug-in cards. The integrated sound system is often still referred to as a sound card
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Clock Signal
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits. A clock signal is produced by a clock generator. Although more complex arrangements are used, the most common clock signal is in the form of a square wave with a 50% duty cycle, usually with a fixed, constant frequency
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Panasonic
Panasonic Corporation
Panasonic Corporation
(パナソニック株式会社, Panasonikku Kabushiki-gaisha), formerly known as Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (松下電器産業株式会社, Matsushita Denki Sangyō Kabushiki-gaisha), is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.[1] The company was founded in 1918 as a producer of lightbulb sockets and has grown to become one of the largest Japanese electronics producers alongside Sony, Hitachi, Toshiba
Toshiba
and Canon Inc.
Canon Inc.
In addition to electronics, it offers non-electronic products and services such as home renovation services
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Workstations
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. The term workstation has also been used loosely to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network, but the most common form refers to the group of hardware offered by several current and defunct companies such as Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, Apollo Computer, DEC, HP, NeXT
NeXT
and IBM
IBM
which opened the door for the 3D graphics animation revolution of the late 1990s. Workstations offered higher performance than mainstream personal computers, especially with respect to CPU and graphics, memory capacity, and multitasking capability
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Server (computing)
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers
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MiB
The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.[1] The binary prefix mebi means 220, therefore one mebibyte is equal to 1048576bytes = 1024 kibibytes. The unit symbol for the mebibyte is MiB
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IEC 60027
IEC 60027 (formerly IEC 27) is a technical international standard for letter symbols published by the International Electrotechnical Commission, comprising the following parts:IEC 60027-1: General IEC 60027-2: Telecommunications and electronics IEC 60027-3: Logarithmic and related quantities, and their units IEC 60027-4: Symbols for quantities to be used for rotating electrical machines IEC 60027-6: Control technology IEC 60027-7: Physiological quantities and unitsA closely related international standard on quantities and units is ISO 31. The ISO 31 and IEC 60027 Standards are being revised by the two standardization organizations in collaboration
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Mebibyte
The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.[1] The binary prefix mebi means 220, therefore one mebibyte is equal to 1048576bytes = 1024 kibibytes. The unit symbol for the mebibyte is MiB
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Exclusive Or
but not is Venn diagram
Venn diagram
of A ⊕ B ⊕ C displaystyle scriptstyle Aoplus Boplus C   ⊕   displaystyle ~oplus ~   ⇔   displaystyle ~Leftrightarrow ~ Exclusive or
Exclusive or
or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).[1] It is symbolized by the prefix operator J[2] and by the infix operators XOR (/ˌɛks ˈɔːr/), EOR, EXOR, ⊻, ⩒, ⩛, ⊕, ↮, and ≢. The negation of XOR is logical biconditional, which outputs true only when both inputs are the same. It gains the name "exclusive or" because the meaning of "or" is ambiguous when both operands are true; the exclusive or operator excludes that case. This is sometimes thought of as "one or the other but not both"
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Computer
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms
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