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SCART
Status & Aspect Ratio up[c]0–2 V → off +5–8 V → on/16:9 +9.5–12 V → on/4:3Pin 9RGB Green ground (pin 11 ground)Pin 10Clock / Data 2[d] Control bus (AV.link)Pin 11RGB Green up Component Y up[b]Pin 12Reserved / Data 1[d]Pin 13RGB Red ground (pin 15 ground)Pin 14Usually Data signal ground (pins 8, 10 & 12 ground)Pin 15RGB Red up S- Video
Video
C up Component PR up[b]Pin 16Blanking signal up RGB-selection voltage up0–0.4 V → composite 1–3 V → R
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Analog Electronics
Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".[1]Contents1 Analogue signals 2 Inherent noise 3 Analogue vs digital electronics3.1 Noise 3.2 Precision 3.3 Design difficulty4 See also 5 ReferencesAnalogue signals[edit] Main article: Analogue signal An analogue signal uses some attribute of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses the angular position of a needle as the signal to convey the information of changes in atmospheric pressure.[2] Electrical signals may represent information by changing their voltage, current, frequency, or total charge
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Widescreen
Widescreen
Widescreen
images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios (relationship of image width to height) that is used in film, television and computer screens. In film, a widescreen film is any film image with a width-to-height aspect ratio greater than the standard 1.37:1 Academy aspect ratio provided by 35mm film. For television, the original screen ratio for broadcasts was 4:3 (1.33:1). Largely between the 1990s and early 2000s, at varying paces in different nations, 16:9 (1.78:1) widescreen TV displays came into increasingly common use. They are typically used in conjunction with high-definition television (HDTV) receivers, or Standard-Definition (SD) DVD
DVD
players and other digital television sources. With computer displays, aspect ratios wider than 4:3 are also referred to as widescreen
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Video Game Console
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is primarily used to distinguish a console machine primarily designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers. An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, display, game controller (joystick, buttons, etc.) and speakers housed in large chassis
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Stereo
Stereophonic sound
Stereophonic sound
or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing.[1] Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio, TV, recorded music, and cinema.How stereophonic & duophonic sound systems work
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Sound Reproduction
Sound
Sound
recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it
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Canal Plus
Canal+
Canal+
("Canal Plus", "C+", French pronunciation: ​[kanalˈplys], meaning "Channel Plus/Max") is a French premium cable television channel launched in 1984. It is 100% owned by the Canal+
Canal+
Group, which in turn is owned by Vivendi
Vivendi
SA
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Teletext
Teletext
Teletext
(or broadcast teletext) is a television information retrieval service created in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the early 1970s by the Philips
Philips
Lead Designer for VDUs, John Adams. Teletext
Teletext
is a means of sending pages of text and simple geometric shapes from mosaic blocks to a VBI decoder equipped television screen by use of a number of reserved vertical blanking interval lines that together form the dark band dividing pictures horizontally on the television screen.[1] It offers a range of text-based information, typically including news, weather and TV schedules. Paged subtitle (or closed captioning) information is also transmitted within the television signal. It is closely linked to the PAL
PAL
broadcast system used in Europe
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Subtitles
Subtitles are text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can also be at the top of the screen if there is already text at the bottom of the screen. They can either be a form of written translation of a dialog in a foreign language, or a written rendering of the dialog in the same language, with or without added information to help viewers who are deaf or hard of hearing to follow the dialog, or people who cannot understand the spoken dialogue or who have accent recognition problems. The encoded method can either be pre-rendered with the video or separate as either a graphic or text to be rendered and overlaid by the receiver
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Pixel
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel,[1] dots, or picture element[2] is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable
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Satellite Television
Satellite television
Satellite television
is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.[1] The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna commonly referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter. A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be external set-top boxes, or a built-in television tuner. Satellite television
Satellite television
provides a wide range of channels and services
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Letterbox
Letterboxing is the practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the film's original aspect ratio. The resulting videographic image has mattes (black bars) above and below it; these mattes are part of the image (i.e., of each frame of the video signal). LBX or LTBX are the identifying abbreviations for films and images so formatted. The term refers to the shape of a letter box, a slot in a wall or door through which mail is delivered, being rectangular and wider than it is high.Contents1 Description 2 Early home video use 3 In the cinema and home video 4 On television 5 Pillarboxing and windowboxing 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDescription[edit] Letterboxing is used as an alternative to a full-screen, pan-and-scan transfer of a widescreen film image to videotape or videodisc
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SO-239
The UHF connector[3] is a World War II
World War II
or earlier[4][5] threaded RF connector design, from an era when "UHF" referred to frequencies over 30 MHz.[6][7][8]Contents1 Design and nomenclature 2 Characteristics2.1 Mechanical 2.2 Surge impedance 2.3 Power 2.4 Environmental tolerance3 Applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesDesign and nomenclature[edit] Originally the connector was designed to carry signals at frequencies up to 300 MHz,[3] but later measurements reveal limitations above 100 MHz.[9] The coupling shell has a ​5⁄8-inch 24 tpi UNEF standard thread.[3] The most popular cable plug and corr
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Pan And Scan
Pan and scan
Pan and scan
is a method of adjusting widescreen film images so that they can be shown within the proportions of a standard definition 4:3 aspect ratio television screen, often cropping off the sides of the original widescreen image to focus on the composition's most important aspects. Some film directors and enthusiasts disapprove of pan and scan cropping, because it can remove up to 45% of the original image on 2.35:1 films or up to 53% on earlier 2.55:1 presentations, changing the director or cinematographer's original vision and intentions. The most extreme examples remove up to 75% of the original picture on such aspect ratios as 2.75:1 or even 3:1 in epics such as Ben-Hur, King of Kings or Lawrence of Arabia. The vertical equivalent is known as "tilt and scan" or "reverse pan and scan"
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576i
576i
576i
is a standard-definition video mode originally used for broadcast television in most countries of the world where the utility frequency for electric power distribution is 50 Hz. Because of its close association with the color encoding system, it is often referred to as simply PAL, PAL/ SECAM
SECAM
or SECAM
SECAM
when compared to its 60 Hz (typically, see PAL-M) NTSC-color-encoded counterpart, 480i. In digital applications it is usually referred to as "576i"; in analogue contexts it is often called "625 lines",[1] and the aspect ratio is usually 4:3 in analogue transmission and 16:9 in digital transmission. The 576 identifies a vertical resolution of 576 lines, and the i identifies it as an interlaced resolution
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Multiplexed Analogue Components
Multiplexed analogue components (MAC) was a satellite television transmission standard, originally proposed for use on a Europe-wide terrestrial HDTV system, although it was never used terrestrially.Contents1 Technical overview1.1 Audio and scrambling (selective access)2 History 3 Variants 4 Studio (non-broadcast) MAC variants 5 MAC system innovations 6 Technical challenges 7 Technological obsolescence 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksTechnical overview[edit] MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video). Audio and scrambling (selective access)[edit]Audio, in a format similar to
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