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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
"The Internationale" (1918–1944)"National Anthem of the Soviet Union" (1944–1990)"The Patriotic Song" (1990–1991)Extent of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
(red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) following World War II
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Viipuri Province
Coat of armsCapital ViipuriHistory •  Established 1812 •  Disestablished 1945Area •  1939¹ 32,134 km2 (12,407 sq mi)Population •  1939¹ 620,838 Density 19.3 /km2  (50 /sq mi)¹ About 43 thousand km² with the surface of the Finnish part of Lake Ladoga. Viipuri
Viipuri
Province in 1897Viborg CastleThe Viipuri
Viipuri
Province (Finnish: Viipurin lääni, commonly abbreviated Vpl, Swedish: Viborgs län or Swedish: Wiborgs län) was a province of Finland
Finland
from 1812 to 1945.History[edit] The predecessor of the province was Vyborg
Vyborg
Governorate, which was established in 1744 from territories ceded by the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
to Russia in 1721 (Treaty of Nystad) and in 1743 (Treaty of Åbo)
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Taganrog
Taganrog
Taganrog
(Russian: Таганрог, IPA: [təɡɐnˈrok]) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay
Taganrog Bay
in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River
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20th Century
The 20th century
20th century
was a century that began on January 1, 1901[1] and ended on December 31, 2000.[2] It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900
1900
and ended on December 31, 1999. The 20th century
20th century
was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War
Cold War
and post- Cold War
Cold War
conflicts; intergovernmental organizations and cultural homogenization through developments in emerging transportation and communications technology; poverty reduction and world population growth, awareness of environmental degradation, ecological extinction;[3][4] and the birth of the Digital Revolution
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Congress Of People's Deputies Of Russia
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.[1] The term, originally denoting a parley during battle in the Late Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin
Latin
congressus.[2] ( The dictionary definition of congressus at Wiktionary) In the mid-1770s, the term was chosen by the 13 British colonies for the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
to emphasize the status of each colony represented there as a self-governing entity. Subsequent to the use of congress as the name for the legislature of the U.S
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Separation Of Powers
The separation of powers, often imprecisely and metonymically used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state. Under this model, a state's government is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in some parliamentary systems where the executive and legislature are unified. Separation of powers, therefore, refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another
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Democracy
Democracy
Democracy
(Greek: δημοκρατία dēmokratía, literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament.[1] Democracy
Democracy
is someti
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Multi-party State
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.[1] Apart from one-party-dominant and two-party systems, multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems than presidential systems and far more common in countries that use proportional representation compared to countries that use first-past-the-post elections. First-past-the-post
First-past-the-post
requires concentrated areas of support for large representation in the legislature whereas proportional representation better reflects the range of a population's views. Proportional systems have multi-member districts with more than one representative elected from a given district to the same legislative body, and thus a greater number of viable parties
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Socialist Republic
A socialist state or socialist republic (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. In Western usage, the term "communist state" is often used in reference to single-party socialist states governed by parties adhering to a variant of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
or Maoism, though these states officially refer to themselves as "socialist states" or states that are in the process of building socialism and do not describe themselves as "communist" or as having achieved communism.[1][2][3] Aside from the "communist states", a number of other states have described their orientation as "socialist" in their constitutions
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Soviet Republic (system Of Government)
A soviet republic (from Russian: Советская республика - Sovetskaya respublika, German: Räterepublik, French: République des conseils, Dutch: Radenrepubliek, Ukrainian: Радянська республіка, Belarusian: Савецкая рэспубліка, etc) is a term used to describe a republic in which the government is formed of soviets (workers' councils) and politics are based on soviet democracy and democratic centralism. Although the term is usually associated with Soviet states, it was not initially used to represent the political organisation of the Soviet Union, but merely a form of democracy. There were several revolutionary workers' movements in various areas of Europe which declared independence under the name of a soviet republic in the immediate aftermath of the First World War.[1] Examples[edit] The first Soviet republics were short-lived communist revolutionary governments that were established in what had been the Russian Empire after the
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Federalism
Federalism
Federalism
is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Sovereign State
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area
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Transliteration
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Santa Fe Southern Railway
The Santa Fe Southern Railway (reporting mark SFSR) was a short line railroad in New Mexico, United States. In addition to carrying freight, it also operated as a tourist railroad that carried passengers between Lamy and Santa Fe, a distance of 18.1 miles (29.1 km).[1]Contents1 History1.1 Beginnings and the Expansion of Tourist Operations 1.2 Financial Troubles and Attempted Recovery 1.3 End of Operations2 Rolling stock 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Beginnings and the Expansion of Tourist Operations[edit] The Santa Fe Southern began operations in 1992, after the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway ended operations on their Lamy to Santa Fe line and a group of local businesspeople purchased the track to continue freight service in the area. Passenger service was added later on.[1] On October 8, 2010, the railroad was purchased by STI-Global, Ltd., an Australian-based company
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