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Russian Revolution Of 1917
The Russian Revolution
Revolution
was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets') which contended for authority
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1905 Russian Revolution
Imperial Government victoryRevolutionaries defeated Nicholas II
Nicholas II
retains the throne October Manifesto Constitution enacted Establishment of the State DumaBelligerents Imperial Government Supported by:Russian Army Okhrana Black Hundreds Russian nobility Gentry assembly Romania Revolutionaries Supported by:Peasants Industrial workers Separatists Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Soviet Moscow City Duma Chita Republic SR RSDLPCommanders and leaders Nicholas II Sergei Witte Viktor Chernov Leon TrotskyCasualties and lossesUnknown 1 battleship surrendered to RomaniaThe Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies
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Rebellion
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.[1] It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. The term comes from the Latin verb rebellō, "I renew war" (from re- ("again") + bellō ("I wage war/I revolt"). The rebel is the individual that partakes in rebellion or rebellious activities, particularly when armed. Thus, the term rebellion also refers to the ensemble of rebels in a state of revolt. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and then manifests itself by the refusal to submit or to obey the authority responsible for this situation. Rebellion
Rebellion
can be individual or collective, peaceful (civil disobedience, civil resistance, and nonviolent resistance) or violent (terrorism, sabotage and guerrilla warfare.)[citation needed] In political terms, rebellion and revolt are often distinguished by their different aims
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Boycott
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for social, political, or environmental reasons. The purpose of a boycott is to inflict some economic loss on the target, or to indicate a moral outrage, to try to compel the target to alter an objectionable behavior. Sometimes, a boycott can be a form of consumer activism, sometimes called moral purchasing. When a similar practice is legislated by a national government, it is known as a sanction.Contents1 Etymology 2 Notable boycotts 3 Application and uses 4 Collective behavior 5 Legality5.1 United States6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesEtymology[edit]Vanity Fair caricature of Charles C
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Civil Disobedience
Civil disobedience
Civil disobedience
is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws of the state, and/or demands, orders, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is sometimes defined as having to be nonviolent to be called civil disobedience
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Civil War
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology,[1] is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies.[2] The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.[3] Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M
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Class Conflict
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of communist Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Coup D'état
A coup d'état (/ˌkuː deɪˈtɑː/ ( listen); French: [ku deta]), also known simply as a coup, a putsch (/pʊtʃ/), golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.[1]Contents1 Terminology1.1 Etymology 1.2 Use of the phrase 1.3 Putsch 1.4 Pronunciamiento2 History 3 Types 4 Predictors 5 Coup-proofing 6 Democratization 7 Repression after failed coups, and counter-coups 8 International responses 9 In Popular Media 10 Current leaders who assumed power via coups d'état 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 Bibliography 15 External linksTerminology[edit] Etymology[edit] Coup is when a country or a team attempt at taking something that is not theirs. The phrase coup d'état is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state"
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Demonstration (protest)
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers. Actions such as blockades and sit-ins may also be referred to as demonstrations. Demonstrations can be nonviolent or violent (usually referred to by participants as "militant"), or can begin as nonviolent and turn violent dependent on circumstances. Sometimes riot police or other forms of law enforcement become involved. In some cases this may be in order to try to prevent the protest from taking place at all
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Guerrilla Warfare
Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.[1] Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor.Contents1 Etymology 2 Strategy, tactics and methods2.1 Strategy 2.2 Tactics 2.3 Unconventional methods 2.4 Growth during the 20th century3 History 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare4.1 Scholarship4.1.1 Classic guidelines 4.1.2 Variants5 Foco
Foco
theory 6 Relationship to terrorism 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra" ("war")
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Insurgency
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.[1] An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime.[2] The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept. Not all rebellions are insurgencies. There have been many cases of non-violent rebellions, using civil resistance, as in the People Power Revolution in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 1980s that ousted President Marcos and the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[3] Where a revolt takes the form of armed rebellion, it may not be viewed as an insurgency if a state of belligerency exists between one or more sovereign states and rebel forces
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Nonviolent Resistance
Nonviolent
Nonviolent
resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent. This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the resisting person or group. It is largely but wrongly taken as synonymous with civil resistance. Each of these terms—nonviolent resistance and civil resistance—has its distinct merits and also quite different connotations and commitments. Major nonviolent resistance advocates include Mahatma Gandhi, Henry David Thoreau, Te Whiti o Rongomai, Tohu Kākahi, Leo Tolstoy, Alice Paul, Martin Luther King, Jr, James Bevel, Václav Havel, Andrei Sakharov, Lech Wałęsa, Gene Sharp, and many others
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Protest
A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations
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Revolutionary Terror
Revolutionary terror
Revolutionary terror
(also referred to as Revolutionary terrorism, or a reign of terror)[1]) refers to the institutionalized application of force to counterrevolutionaries, particularly during the French Revolution
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Social Revolution
Social revolutions are sudden changes in the structure and nature of society.[1] These revolutions are usually recognized as having transformed in society, culture, philosophy, and technology much more than political systems.[2] Theda Skocpol
Theda Skocpol
in her article "France, Russia, China: A Structural Analysis of Social Revolutions" states that social revolution is a "combination of thoroughgoing structural transformation and massive class upheavals".[3] She comes to this definition by combining Samuel P
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Samizdat
Samizdat
Samizdat
was a form of dissident activity across the Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
in which individuals reproduced censored and underground publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader. This grassroots practice to evade official Soviet censorship was fraught with danger, as harsh punishments were meted out to people caught possessing or copying censored materials
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