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Russian Revolution Of 1917
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar ; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets ') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the soviets. The February Revolution (March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
), the capital of Russia at that time. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament (the Duma
Duma
) assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government which was heavily dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy
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1905 Russian Revolution
Imperial Government victory * Revolutionaries defeated * Nicholas II retains the throne * October Manifesto * Constitution enacted * Establishment of the State Duma BELLIGERENTS Imperial Government Supported by: * Russian Army * Okhrana * Black Hundreds * Russian nobility * Gentry assembly ------------------------- Romania Revolutionaries Supported by: * Peasants * Industrial workers * Separatists * Saint Petersburg Soviet * Moscow City Duma * Chita Republic * SR * RSDLP COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Nicholas II Sergei Witte Viktor Chernov Leon Trotsky CASUALTIES AND LOSSES Unknown 1 battleship surrendered to RomaniaThe RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire , some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes , peasant unrest, and military mutinies . It led to Constitutional Reform including the establishment of the State Duma , the multi-party system , and the Russian Constitution of 1906
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Red Square
RED SQUARE (Russian : Кра́сная пло́щадь, tr. _Krásnaya plóshchaď_; IPA: ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow , Russia . It separates the Kremlin , the former royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia , from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod . Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow since Moscow's major streets, which connect to Russia's major highways, originate from the square. CONTENTS * 1 Origin and name * 2 History * 2.1 Before the 18th century * 2.2 18th century * 2.3 19th and early 20th centuries * 2.4 Soviet era and modern era * 3 Main sights * 4 World Heritage Listing * 5 Sport * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 References * 9 External links ORIGIN AND NAMEThe name _Red Square_ neither originates from the pigment of the surrounding bricks (which, in fact, were whitewashed at certain periods) nor from the link between the colour red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная (_krasnaya_), which means both "red" and "beautiful," was applied to a small area between St
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Old Style And New Style Dates
OLD STYLE (O.S.) and NEW STYLE (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day (25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian Calendar in favour of the Gregorian Calendar . Closely related is the custom of dual dating , where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries. This change was implemented subsequently in Protestant and Orthodox countries, usually at much later dates. In England and Wales , Ireland , and the British colonies, the change of the start of the year and the changeover from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 under the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 . In Scotland , the legal start of the year had already been moved to 1 January (in 1600), but Scotland otherwise continued to use the Julian calendar until 1752. So "New Style" can either refer to the start of year adjustment , or to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar
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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (also known as RUSSIA) was an empire that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917 . One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire
Empire
from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov , ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire
Empire
extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea
Black Sea
in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census , it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India
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Abdication
ABDICATION is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Western classical antiquity * 3 British and Commonwealth history * 4 Japanese history * 5 Abdications * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TERMINOLOGY Tomb effigy of heart of King John II Casimir Vasa at Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris , showing removal of the crown The word _abdication_ derives from the Latin _abdicatio_ meaning to disown or renounce (from _ab_, away from, and _dicare_, to dedicate or relinquish). In its broadest sense _abdication_ is the act of renouncing and resigning from any formal office, but it is applied especially to the supreme office of state . In Roman law the term was also applied to the disowning of a family member, such as the disinheriting of a son. Today the term commonly applies to monarchs, or to those who have been formally crowned . An elected or appointed official is said to resign rather than to abdicate. A notable exception is the voluntary relinquishing of the office of Bishop of Rome (and thus Sovereign of the Vatican City State) by the Pope, called Papal resignation or Papal renunciation
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Nicholas II Of Russia
NICHOLAS II (Russian : Николай II Алекса́ндрович, tr. _Nikolai II Aleksandrovich_; 18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia , ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. Due to the Khodynka Tragedy , anti-Semitic pogroms , Bloody Sunday , the violent suppression of the 1905 Revolution , the execution of political opponents and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War , he was given the nickname NICHOLAS THE BLOODY by his political adversaries. Soviet historiography portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader, whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects. Russia suffered a decisive defeat in the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War , which saw the annihilation of the Russian Baltic Fleet at the Battle of Tsushima , loss of Russian influence over Manchuria and Korea , and the Japanese annexation of South Sakhalin . The Anglo-Russian Entente , designed to counter German attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, ended the Great Game between Russia and the United Kingdom
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February Revolution
Revolutionary victory * Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II , creation of the Russian Republic * Establishment of dual power between the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet BELLIGERENTS Imperial Government Gendarmes MVD Department of Police Petrograd garrison Revolutionaries Petrograd garrison (later days) COMMANDERS AND LEADERS General Sergei Khabalov (Petrograd MD ) Alexander Shliapnikov , and others CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 1,443 killed (Petrograd alone) * v * t * e Russian Revolution * February Revolution * July Days * Kornilov affair * October Revolution * Kerensky–Krasnov uprising * Russian Civil War The FEBRUARY REVOLUTION (Russian : Февра́льская револю́ция; IPA: ), known in Soviet historiography as the _February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution_ was the first of two Russian revolutions in 1917. The revolution centered on Petrograd (now known as St. Petersburg ), then the Russian capital, where longstanding discontent with the monarchy erupted into mass protests against food rationing on 8 March (23 February in the Julian calendar ). Revolutionary activity was largely confined to the capital and its vicinity, and lasted about eight days
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October Revolution
The OCTOBER REVOLUTION (Russian : Октя́брьская револю́ция, tr. _Oktyabr'skaya revolyutsiya_; IPA: ), officially known in Soviet literature as the GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция, _Velikaya Oktyabr'skaya sotsialističeskaya revolyutsiya_), and commonly referred to as RED OCTOBER, the OCTOBER UPRISING or the BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks which was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917 . It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on the 25th of October (7 November, New Style ) 1917. It followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael , brother of Tsar Nicolas II , who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils (Russian: _Soviet_) wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions
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Russian Provisional Government
Coordinates : 59°56′27″N 30°18′47″E / 59.9408°N 30.313°E / 59.9408; 30.313 The RUSSIAN PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (Russian : Временное правительство России, tr. _Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii_) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention. The provisional government lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October 1917. According to Harold Whitmore Williams the history of eight months during which Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government was the history of the steady and systematic disorganisation of the army. For most of the life of the Provisional Government, the status of the monarchy was unresolved. This was finally clarified on 1 September , when the Russian Republic was proclaimed, in a decree signed by Kerensky as Minister-President and Zarudny as Minister of Justice
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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (RUSSIAN SFSR or RSFSR; Russian : Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika listen (help ·info )), also known as SOVIET RUSSIA or RUSSIA (/ˈrʌʃə/ ( listen ); Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossija; IPA: ; from the Greek : Ρωσία — Rus\' ), was a sovereign state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with its own legislation in 1990–91. The Republic comprised sixteen autonomous republics , five autonomous oblasts , ten autonomous okrugs , six krais , and forty oblasts . Russians
Russians
formed the largest ethnic group . The capital of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad , Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
, Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
, Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
and Samara
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Russian Civil War
RUSSIAN SFSR (7 November 1917–30 December 1922) Ukrainian SSR (20 November 1917–30 December 1922) ------------------------- Left SR Green armies (1919–1920) ------------------------- Makhnovschyna (1918–1920) WHITE MOVEMENT Including: * Orenburg Cossacks (8 November 1917–7 February 1921) * Don Republic (2 December 1917–8 January 1920) * Siberia (7 December 1917–4 November 1918) * Kuban PR (28 January–14 March 1918; 17 August 1918–3 May 1920) * Komuch (8 June–23 S
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July Days
Demonstrators * Bolshevik Party * Anarchists Russian government * Socialist Revolutionary Party * Mensheviks COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Pavel Dybenko Grigory Zinoviev Alexander Kerensky STRENGTH 500,000 unarmed demonstrators, 4,000–5,000 Red Guard soldiers, a few hundred anarchist sailors, and 12,000 soldiers and low-rank officers Several thousand police and soldiers CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 700 wounded demonstrators, 160 people killed and 100 arrested 24 killed * v * t * e Russian Revolution * February Revolution * July Days * Kornilov affair * October Revolution * Kerensky–Krasnov uprising * Russian Civil War The JULY DAYS refers to events in 1917 that took place in Petrograd , Russia , between 3 July and 7 July ( Julian calendar ) (16 July – 20 July, Gregorian calendar ), when soldiers and industrial workers engaged in spontaneous armed demonstrations against the Russian Provisional Government . The Bolsheviks initially attempted to prevent the demonstrations and then decided to support them. (Dates given in article Gregorian Calendar.) The Bolsheviks intended to hold peaceful demonstrations. However, armed clashes broke out
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Kornilov Affair
The KORNILOV AFFAIR, or the KORNILOV PUTSCH, was an attempted military coup d\'état by the then Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army , General Lavr Kornilov , in August 1917 against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Aleksander Kerensky and the Petrograd Soviet of Soldiers and Workers Deputies. The affair began with Kerensky requesting that Kornilov move forces loyal to the Provisional Government into Petrograd to counter the threat of the radical (and Soviet-controlled) Petrograd army garrison. Kornilov then marched on Petrograd intent on 'purging' the Provisional Government of revolutionary elements, possibly with the intention of establishing a military dictatorship. Kerensky countered Kornilov by arming the Bolshevik-influenced Soviets, with the result that Kornilov and his closest advisers were imprisoned, and the Bolsheviks permanently armed and empowered. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Consequences * 3 Historiography * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading BACKGROUND _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Kerensky–Krasnov Uprising
KERENSKY–KRASNOV UPRISING was an attempt by Alexander Kerensky to regain power after the Bolsheviks overthrew his Provisional Government in Petrograd
Petrograd
. Following the October Revolution , Kerensky fled Petrograd
Petrograd
and went to Pskov , where he rallied troops loyal to his cause in an attempt to retake the capital. He appointed Pyotr Krasnov to lead this army. Also cadets from military schools, the so-called Junker mutiny
Junker mutiny
supported Kerensky in his bid to retake control of the government. His troops captured Tsarskoe Selo , but the next day were defeated at the Pulkovo Heights . The failure of the uprising led to Kerensky being forced to go into exile, eventually finding refuge in France
France
and later the United States
United States

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