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Russian Revolution Of 1917
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar ; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets ') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the soviets
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1905 Russian Revolution
Imperial Government victory * Revolutionaries defeated * Nicholas II
Nicholas II
retains the throne * October Manifesto * Constitution enacted * Establishment of the State Duma BELLIGERENTS Imperial Government Supported by: * Russian Army * Okhrana *
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Red Square
RED SQUARE (Russian : Кра́сная пло́щадь, tr. _Krásnaya plóshchaď_; IPA: ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow , Russia . It separates the Kremlin , the former royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia , from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod . Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow since Moscow's major streets, which connect to Russia's major highways, originate from the square
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Old Style And New Style Dates
OLD STYLE (O.S.) and NEW STYLE (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day (25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian Calendar in favour of the Gregorian Calendar . Closely related is the custom of dual dating , where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries. This change was implemented subsequently in Protestant and Orthodox countries, usually at much later dates
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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (also known as RUSSIA) was an empire that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917 . One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire
Empire
from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov , ruled from 1762
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Abdication
ABDICATION is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Western classical antiquity * 3 British and Commonwealth history * 4 Japanese history * 5 Abdications * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TERMINOLOGY Tomb effigy of heart of King John II Casimir Vasa
John II Casimir Vasa
at Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris
Paris
, showing removal of the crown The word abdication derives from the Latin
Latin
abdicatio meaning to disown or renounce (from ab, away from, and dicare, to dedicate or relinquish). In its broadest sense abdication is the act of renouncing and resigning from any formal office, but it is applied especially to the supreme office of state . In Roman law
Roman law
the term was also applied to the disowning of a family member, such as the disinheriting of a son
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Nicholas II Of Russia
NICHOLAS II (Russian : Николай II Алекса́ндрович, tr. _Nikolai II Aleksandrovich_; 18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia , ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. Due to the Khodynka Tragedy , anti-Semitic pogroms , Bloody Sunday , the violent suppression of the 1905 Revolution , the execution of political opponents and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War , he was given the nickname NICHOLAS THE BLOODY by his political adversaries. Soviet historiography portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader, whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects
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February Revolution
Revolutionary victory * Abdication
Abdication
of Tsar Nicholas II
Nicholas II
, creation of the
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October Revolution
The OCTOBER REVOLUTION (Russian : Октя́брьская револю́ция, tr. _Oktyabr'skaya revolyutsiya_; IPA: ), officially known in Soviet literature as the GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция, _Velikaya Oktyabr'skaya sotsialističeskaya revolyutsiya_), and commonly referred to as RED OCTOBER, the OCTOBER UPRISING or the BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks which was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917 . It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on the 25th of October (7 November, New Style ) 1917
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Russian Provisional Government
Coordinates : 59°56′27″N 30°18′47″E / 59.9408°N 30.313°E / 59.9408; 30.313 The RUSSIAN PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (Russian : Временное правительство России, tr. Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia
Russia
established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II
Tsar Nicholas II
of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
on 2 March 1917. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly
Russian Constituent Assembly
and its convention. The provisional government lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
gained power after the October Revolution
October Revolution
in October 1917
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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (RUSSIAN SFSR or RSFSR; Russian : Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika listen (help ·info )), also known as SOVIET RUSSIA or RUSSIA (/ˈrʌʃə/ ( listen ); Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossija; IPA: ; from the Greek : Ρωσία — Rus\' ), was a sovereign state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with its own legislation in 1990–91. The Republic comprised sixteen autonomous republics , five autonomous oblasts , ten autonomous okrugs , six krais , and forty oblasts . Russians
Russians
formed the largest ethnic group
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Russian Civil War
RUSSIAN SFSR (7 November 1917–30 December 1922) Ukrainian SSR (20 November 1917–30 December 1922) ------------------------- Left SR Green armies (1919–1920) ------------------------- Makhnovschyna (1918–1920) WHITE MOVEMENT Including: * Orenburg Cossacks (8 November 1917–7 February 1921) * Don Republic (2 December 1917–8 January 1920) *
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July Days
Demonstrators * Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Party * Anarchists Russian government * Socialist Revolutionary Party
Socialist Revolutionary Party
*
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Kornilov Affair
The KORNILOV AFFAIR, or the KORNILOV PUTSCH, was an attempted military coup d\'état by the then Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army , General Lavr Kornilov , in August 1917 against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Aleksander Kerensky and the Petrograd Soviet of Soldiers and Workers Deputies. The affair began with Kerensky requesting that Kornilov move forces loyal to the Provisional Government into Petrograd to counter the threat of the radical (and Soviet-controlled) Petrograd army garrison. Kornilov then marched on Petrograd intent on 'purging' the Provisional Government of revolutionary elements, possibly with the intention of establishing a military dictatorship. Kerensky countered Kornilov by arming the Bolshevik-influenced Soviets, with the result that Kornilov and his closest advisers were imprisoned, and the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
permanently armed and empowered
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Kerensky–Krasnov Uprising
KERENSKY–KRASNOV UPRISING was an attempt by Alexander Kerensky to regain power after the Bolsheviks overthrew his Provisional Government in Petrograd . Following the October Revolution , Kerensky fled Petrograd and went to Pskov , where he rallied troops loyal to his cause in an attempt to retake the capital. He appointed Pyotr Krasnov to lead this army. Also cadets from military schools, the so-called Junker mutiny supported Kerensky in his bid to retake control of the government. His troops captured Tsarskoe Selo , but the next day were defeated at the Pulkovo Heights . The failure of the uprising led to Kerensky being forced to go into exile, eventually finding refuge in France
France
and later the United States
United States

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Revolution
A REVOLUTION (from the Latin _revolutio_, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in political power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time when the population rises up in revolt against the current authorities. Aristotle
Aristotle
described two types of political revolution: * Complete change from one constitution to another * Modification of an existing constitution. Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology . Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio -political institutions . Scholarly debates about what does and does not constitute a revolution center on several issues
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