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Russian Revolution Of 1917
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets ') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the soviets
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Guerrilla Warfare
GUERRILLA WARFARE is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians , or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes , sabotage , raids , petty warfare , hit-and-run tactics , and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Strategy, tactics and organization * 3 History * 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare * 4.1 Scholarship * 4.1.1 Classic guidelines * 4.1.2 Variants * 5 Foco theory * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term, the diminutive form of "war" in Spanish , is usually translated as "little war", and the word, guerrilla (Spanish pronunciation: ), has been used to refer to the concept since the 18th century, and perhaps earlier. In correct Spanish usage, a person who is a member of a guerrilla is a guerrillero ( ) if male, or a guerrillera if female
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Demonstration (protest)
A DEMONSTRATION or STREET PROTEST is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers. Actions such as blockades and sit-ins may also be referred to as demonstrations. Demonstrations can be nonviolent or violent (usually referred to by participants as "militant "), or can begin as nonviolent and turn violent dependent on circumstances. Sometimes riot police or other forms of law enforcement become involved. In some cases this may be in order to try to prevent the protest from taking place at all. In other cases it may be to prevent clashes between rival groups, or to prevent a demonstration from spreading and turning into a riot
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Insurgency
An INSURGENCY is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations
United Nations
) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents . An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime. The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept. Not all rebellions are insurgencies. There have been many cases of non-violent rebellions, using civil resistance , as in the People Power Revolution in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 1980s that ousted President Marcos and the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
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Nonviolent Resistance
NONVIOLENT RESISTANCE (NVR or NONVIOLENT ACTION) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests , civil disobedience , economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha , or other methods, while being nonviolent . This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the resisting person or group. It is largely but wrongly taken as synonymous with civil resistance . Each of these terms ("nonviolent resistance" and "civil resistance") has its distinct merits and also quite different connotations and commitments. The modern form of nonviolent resistance was popularised and proven to be effective by the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
in his efforts to gain independence from the British Empire
British Empire

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Protest
A PROTEST (also called a REMONSTRANCE, REMONSTRATION or DEMONSTRATION) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations . Protesters may organize a protest as a way of publicly making their opinions heard in an attempt to influence public opinion or government policy, or they may undertake direct action in an attempt to directly enact desired changes themselves. Where protests are part of a systematic and peaceful campaign to achieve a particular objective, and involve the use of pressure as well as persuasion, they go beyond mere protest and may be better described as cases of civil resistance or nonviolent resistance
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Coup D'état
A COUP D\'éTAT (/ˌkuː deɪˈtɑː/ listen (help ·info ); French: ), also known simply as a COUP (/kuː/ ), a PUTSCH (/pʊtʃ/ ), GOLPE DE ESTADO, or an OVERTHROW, is the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Usage of the phrase * 1.3 Putsch * 1.4 Pronunciamiento * 2 History * 3 Types * 4 Predictors * 5 Coup-proofing * 6 Democratization * 7 Repression after failed coups, and counter-coups * 8 International responses * 9 Current leaders who assumed power via coups d\'état * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links TERMINOLOGYETYMOLOGYThe phrase coup d'état (French pronunciation: ​ ) is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state." In French the word "État" (French: ), denoting a sovereign political entity, is capitalized
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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Revolutionary Wave
A REVOLUTIONARY WAVE is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations in a similar time period. In many cases, past revolutions and revolutionary waves may inspire current ones, or an initial revolution inspires other concurrent "affiliate revolutions" with similar aims. Historians and political philosophers have studied the causes of revolutionary waves, including Robert Roswell Palmer , Crane Brinton , Hannah Arendt , Eric Hoffer and Jacques Godechot . The concept is important to Marxists , who see revolutionary waves as evidence that a world revolution is possible. For Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
, "The most precious thing … in the sharp ebb and flow of the revolutionary waves is the proletariat's spiritual growth
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Boycott
A BOYCOTT is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for social , political , or environmental reasons. The purpose of a boycott is to inflict some economic loss on the target, or to indicate a moral outrage, to try to compel the target to alter an objectionable behavior. Sometimes, a boycott can be a form of consumer activism , sometimes called moral purchasing . When a similar practice is legislated by a national government, it is known as a sanction . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Notable boycotts * 3 Application and uses * 4 Collective Behavior * 5 Legality * 5.1 United States * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References ETYMOLOGY Vanity Fair caricature of Charles C
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Civil Disobedience
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience
Civil disobedience
is sometimes defined as having to be nonviolent to be called civil disobedience. Civil disobedience is sometimes, therefore, equated with nonviolent resistance . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Etymology * 3 Theories * 3.1 Violent vs. non-violent * 3.2 Revolutionary vs. non-revolutionary * 3.3 Collective vs. solitary * 4 Techniques * 4.1 Choice of specific act * 4.2 Cooperation with authorities * 4.3 Choice of plea * 4.4 Choice of allocution * 5 Legal implications of civil disobedience * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links OVERVIEWIts earliest massive non-violent implementation was brought about by Egyptians against the British occupation in the 1919 Revolution
Revolution

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Civil War
A CIVIL WAR, also known as an INTRASTATE WAR in polemology , is a war between organized groups within the same state or country . The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies. The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces , that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources. Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M
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Rebellion
REBELLION, UPRISING, or INSURRECTION is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority . The term comes from the Latin verb rebellō, "I renew war" (from re- ("again") + bellō ("I wage war/I revolt"). The rebel is the individual that partakes in rebellion or rebellious activities, particularly when armed. Thus, the term rebellion also refers to the ensemble of rebels in a state of revolt. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and then manifests itself by the refusal to submit or to obey the authority responsible for this situation. Rebellion
Rebellion
can be individual or collective, peaceful (civil disobedience , civil resistance , and nonviolent resistance ) or violent (terrorism , sabotage and guerrilla warfare .) In political terms, rebellion and revolt are often distinguished by their different aims
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Revolutionary Terror
REVOLUTIONARY TERROR (also referred to as REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISM, or a REIGN OF TERROR) ) refers to the institutionalized application of force to counterrevolutionaries , particularly during the French Revolution
Revolution
from the years 1793 to 1795. The term Communist terrorism has also been used to describe the revolutionary terror, from the Red Terror in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) to the reign of the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
, and others. In contrast reactionary terror, such as White Terror , has been used to subdue revolutions
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Colonialism
COLONIALISM is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories. Colonialism
Colonialism
involves unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous peoples . The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the mid-20th century when several European powers established colonies in Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, and the Americas
Americas
. At first the countries followed a policy of mercantilism , designed to strengthen the home economy at the expense of rivals, so the colonies were usually allowed to trade only with the mother country. By the mid-19th century, however, the powerful British Empire
British Empire
gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade , with few restrictions or tariffs
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Collaborationism
COLLABORATIONISM is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime. Stanley Hoffmann subdivided collaboration onto * involuntary (reluctant recognition of necessity) and * voluntary (an attempt of exploiting necessity). According to him, collaborationism can be subdivided onto * servile and * ideological,the former is a deliberate service to an enemy, whereas the latter is a deliberate advocacy of co-operation with the foreign force which is seen as a champion of some desirable domestic transformations. In contrast, Bertram Gordon used the terms "collaborator" and "collaborationist" for non-ideological and ideological collaborations, respectively. Poor choices of voluntary collaborators may further undermine the already weak legitimacy of an occupation regime. John Hickman identifies thirteen reasons why occupied populations might hold collaborators in contempt
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