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Russian Orthography
Russian orthography
Russian orthography
(Russian: правописа́ние, tr. pravopisaniye, IPA: [prəvəpʲɪˈsanʲɪjə]) is formally considered to encompass spelling (Russian: орфогра́фия, tr. orfografiya, IPA: [ɐrfɐˈɡrafʲɪjə]) and punctuation (Russian: пунктуа́ция, tr. punktuatsiya, IPA: [pʊnktʊˈat͡sɨjə]). Russian spelling, which is quite phonemic in practice, is a mix of the morphological and phonetic principles, with a few etymological or historic forms, and occasional grammatical differentiation. The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reformulated on the French and German models. NOTE: The IPA transcription attempts to reflect vowel reduction when not under stress
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Apposition
Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in apposition. One of the elements is called the appositive, although its identification requires consideration of how the elements are used in a sentence. For example, in the two sentences below, the phrases Alice Smith and my sister are in apposition, with the appositive identified with italics:My sister, Alice Smith, likes jelly beans. Alice Smith, my sister, likes jelly beans.Traditionally, appositions were called by their Latin name appositio, although the English form is now more commonly used
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Н
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It commonly represents the alveolar nasal consonant /n/, like the pronunciation of ⟨n⟩ in "neat".Contents1 History 2 Form 3 Usage 4 Related letters and other similar characters 5 Computing codes 6 External linksHistory[edit] The Cyrillic letter En was derived from the Greek letter Nu (Ν ν). The name of En in the Early Cyrillic alphabet
Early Cyrillic alphabet
was нашь (našĭ), meaning "ours". In the Cyrillic numeral system, En had a value of 50. Form[edit] The capital Cyrillic letter En looks very simil
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Full Stop
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark. It is used for several purposes, the most frequent of which is to mark the end of a sentence (other than a question or exclamation); this sentence-terminal use is properly the full stop
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Colon (punctuation)
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe colon ( : ) is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. A colon precedes an explanation or an enumeration, or list
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Semicolon
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe semicolon or semi colon[1] (;) is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements. A semicolon can be used between two closely related independent clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction
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Comma (punctuation)
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text
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Question Mark
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe question mark [ ? ] (also known as interrogation point, query, or eroteme in journalism)[1] is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause or phrase in many languages. The question mark is not used for indirect questions. The question mark glyph is also often used in place of missing or unknown data
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Exclamation Mark
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe exclamation mark (British English) or exclamation point (some dialects of American English) is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence
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Ellipsis
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eAn ellipsis (plural ellipses; from the Ancient Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission" or "falling short") is a series of dots (typically three, such as "…") that usually indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning.[1]Contents1 Backg
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Subordinate Clause
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence. A dependent clause can either modify an adjacent clause or serve as a component of an independent clause. Some grammarians use the term subordinate clause as a synonym for dependent clause. Others use subordinate clause to refer only to adverbial dependent clauses. The different types of dependent clauses include content clauses (noun clauses), relative (adjectival) clauses, and adverbial clauses.Contents1 Dependent words 2 Content clause 3 Relative (adjectival) clause3.1 Punctuation3.1.1 English punctuation4 Adverbial clause 5 Dependent clauses and sentence structure 6 Non-finite dependent clauses 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDependent words[edit] In Indo-European languages, a dependent clause usually begins with a dependent word. One kind of dependent word is a subordinating conjunction
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Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (/ˌlɒməˈnɔːsɔːf, -sɒf/;[1] Russian: Михаи́л (Михáйло) Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов, IPA: [mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ləmɐˈnosəf] ( listen); November 19 [O.S. November 8] 1711 – April 15 [O.S. April 4] 1765) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries were the atmosphere of Venus and the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others
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Restrictiveness
In semantics, a modifier is said to be restrictive (or defining) if it restricts the reference of its head.[1] For example, in "the red car is fancier than the blue one", red and blue are restrictive, because they restrict which cars car and one are referring to. ("The car is fancier than the one" would make little sense.) By contrast, in "John's beautiful mother", beautiful is non-restrictive; "John's mother" identifies her sufficiently, whereas "beautiful" only serves to add more information. Restrictive modifiers are also called defining, identifying, essential, or necessary; non-restrictive ones are also called non-defining, non-identifying, descriptive, or unnecessary (though this last term can be misleading)
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Hyphen
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation.[1] The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (‒, –, —, ―), which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign (−), which is also longer in some contexts. As an orthographic concept, the hyphen is a single entity
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