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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. _russkiy yazik_) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia , Belarus , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine , and to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics of the Soviet Union and former participants of the Eastern Bloc. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages . Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
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Russian Federation
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Российская Федерация (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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First Language
A FIRST LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGE or MOTHER TONGUE (also known as FATHER TONGUE, ARTERIAL LANGUAGE or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period . In some countries, the term _native language_ or _mother tongue_ refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual . By contrast, a _second language _ is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Mother tongue * 2 Significance * 3 Multilingualism * 3.1 Defining native language * 3.2 Defining "native speaker" * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary in North Carolina
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Balto-Slavic Languages
The BALTO-SLAVIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages . It traditionally comprises the Baltic and Slavic languages . Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other Indo-European branch, which points to a period of common development. Most Indo-Europeanists classify Baltic and Slavic languages into a single branch, even though some details of the nature of their relationship remain in dispute in some circles, usually due to political controversies. Some linguists, however, have recently suggested that Balto-Slavic should be split into three equidistant groups: Eastern Baltic, Western Baltic (which is extinct) and Slavic. A Proto-Balto-Slavic language is reconstructable by the comparative method , descending from Proto-Indo-European by means of well-defined sound laws , and out of which modern Slavic and Baltic languages descended
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Slavic Languages
The SLAVIC LANGUAGES (also called SLAVONIC LANGUAGES) are the Indo-European languages native to the Slavic peoples , originally from Eastern Europe . They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages , which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language , linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages are divided intro three subgroups: East , West , and South , which together constitute more than twenty languages
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East Slavic Languages
The EAST SLAVIC LANGUAGES constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages , currently spoken in Eastern Europe . It is the group with the largest numbers of speakers, far out-numbering the Western and Southern Slavic groups. The existing East Slavic languages are Belarusian , Russian and Ukrainian ; Rusyn is considered to be either a separate language or a dialect of Ukrainian. The East Slavic languages descend from a common predecessor , the language of the medieval Kievan Rus\' (9th to 13th centuries). All these languages use the Cyrillic script , but with particular modifications
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Old East Slavic
OLD EAST SLAVIC or OLD RUSSIAN was a language used in the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus\' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'. Dialects of it were spoken, though not exclusively, in the area today occupied by Belarus
Belarus
, central and northern Ukraine
Ukraine
, and parts of western Russia
Russia

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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Cyrillic Script
The CYRILLIC SCRIPT /sᵻˈrɪlɪk/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across eastern Europe and north and central Asia. It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire . It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of southeastern Europe and northern Eurasia , especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011 , around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union , following the Latin script and Greek script
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Russian Alphabet
The RUSSIAN ALPHABET (Russian : русский алфавит, tr. rússkij alfavít; IPA: ) uses letters from the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
. The modern Russian alphabet
Russian alphabet
consists of 33 letters
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Russian Braille
RUSSIAN BRAILLE is the braille alphabet of the Russian language . With suitable extensions, it is used for languages of neighboring countries that are written in Cyrillic in print, such as Ukrainian and Mongolian. It is based on the Latin transliteration of Cyrillic, with additional letters assigned idiosyncratically. In Russian, it is known as Шрифт Брайля Shrift Braylya ' Braille
Braille
Script'
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List Of Territorial Entities Where Russian Is An Official Language
The Russian language
Russian language
is official in over 38 countries, autonomous regions, de facto independent nation-states, and regions, all of which are listed below. This is a LIST OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES WHERE RUSSIAN IS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: CONTENTS * 1 Countries where Russian is an official language * 2 Some official functions * 3 De facto * 4 National subdivisions * 4.1 Russia
Russia
* 4.2 Ukraine * 4.3 Other * 5 See also * 6 References COUNTRIES WHERE RUSSIAN IS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE * Russia
Russia
* Belarus
Belarus
* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
SOME OFFICIAL FUNCTIONS * Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
: Used in notary institutions and registry offices. * Tajikistan
Tajikistan
: Designated language of inter-ethnic communication. Also permitted in lawmaking
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Российская Федерация (Russian ) _Rossiyskaya Federatsiya_ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " "_Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii _" (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia (green) Russian-administered Crimea (disputed ; light green)a Capital and largest city Moscow 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Russian RECOGNISED NATIONA
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