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Runway
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft"
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Airspeed
Airspeed
Airspeed
is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air. Among the common conventions for qualifying airspeed are indicated airspeed ("IAS"), calibrated airspeed ("CAS"), equivalent airspeed ("EAS"), true airspeed ("TAS"), and density airspeed. Indicated airspeed is simply what is read off of an airspeed gauge connected to a pitot static system, calibrated airspeed is indicated airspeed adjusted for pitot system position and installation error, and equivalent airspeed is calibrated airspeed adjusted for compressibility effects. True airspeed is equivalent airspeed adjusted for air density, and is also the speed of the aircraft through the air in which it is flying. [1] Calibrated airspeed is typically within a few knots of indicated airspeed, while equivalent airspeed decreases slightly from CAS as aircraft altitude increases or at high speeds. With EAS constant, true airspeed increases as aircraft altitude increases
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Ice
Ice
Ice
is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color. In the Solar System, ice is abundant and occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far away as the Oort cloud
Oort cloud
objects. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice. It is abundant on Earth's surface – particularly in the polar regions and above the snow line[2] – and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition, plays a key role in Earth's water cycle and climate. It falls as snowflakes and hail or occurs as frost, icicles or ice spikes. Ice
Ice
molecules can exhibit seventeen or more different phases (packing geometries) that depend on temperature and pressure
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Ground Speed
Ground speed is the horizontal speed of an aircraft relative to the ground. An aircraft heading vertically would have a ground speed of zero. Information displayed to passengers through the entertainment system often gives the aircraft ground speed rather than airspeed. Ground speed can be determined by the vector sum of the aircraft's true airspeed and the current wind speed and direction; a headwind subtracts from the ground speed, while a tailwind adds to it. Winds at other angles to the heading will have components of either headwind or tailwind as well as a crosswind component. An airspeed indicator indicates the aircraft's speed relative to the air mass. The air mass may be moving over the ground due to wind, and therefore some additional means to provide position over the ground is required. This might be through navigation using landmarks, radio aided position location, inertial navigation system, or GPS
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Fixed-wing Aircraft
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (See spelling differences), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. Fixed-wing aircraft
Fixed-wing aircraft
are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft, in which the wings form a rotor mounted on a spinning shaft, and ornithopters, in which the wings flap in similar manner to a bird. Glider fixed-wing aircraft, including free-flying gliders of various kinds and tethered kites, can use moving air to gain height. Powered fixed-wing aircraft that gain forward thrust from an engine (aeroplanes) include powered paragliders, powered hang gliders and some ground effect vehicles. The wings of a fixed-wing aircraft are not necessarily rigid; kites, hang-gliders, variable-sweep wing aircraft and aeroplanes using wing-warping are all fixed-wing aircraft
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Aeronautical Chart
An aeronautical chart is a map designed to assist in navigation of aircraft, much as nautical charts do for watercraft, or a roadmap for drivers. Using these charts and other tools, pilots are able to determine their position, safe altitude, best route to a destination, navigation aids along the way, alternative landing areas in case of an in-flight emergency, and other useful information such as radio frequencies and airspace boundaries. There are charts for all land masses on Earth, and long-distance charts for trans-oceanic travel. Specific charts are used for each phase of a flight and may vary from a map of a particular airport facility to an overview of the instrument routes covering an entire continent (e.g., global navigation charts), and many types in between. Visual flight charts are categorized according to their scale, which is proportional to the size of the area covered by one map
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Magnetic Bearing
A magnetic bearing is a type of bearing that supports a load using magnetic levitation. Magnetic bearings support moving parts without physical contact. For instance, they are able to levitate a rotating shaft and permit relative motion with very low friction and no mechanical wear. Magnetic bearings support the highest speeds of all kinds of bearing and have no maximum relative speed. Passive magnetic bearings use permanent magnets and, therefore, do not require any input power but are difficult to design due to the limitations described by Earnshaw's theorem. Techniques using diamagnetic materials are relatively undeveloped and strongly depend on material characteristics. As a result, most magnetic bearings are active magnetic bearings, using electromagnets which require continuous power input and an active control system to keep the load stable
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Flight Simulator
A flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and the environment in which it flies, for pilot training, design, or other purposes. It includes replicating the equations that govern how aircraft fly, how they react to applications of flight controls, the effects of other aircraft systems, and how the aircraft reacts to external factors such as air density, turbulence, wind shear, cloud, precipitation, etc
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United States Armed Forces
Gen Joseph Dunford, USMCVice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen Paul J. Selva, USAF Senior Enlisted Advisor
Senior Enlisted Advisor
to the Chairman CSM John W. Troxell, USAManpowerMilitary age 17 with parental consent, 18 for voluntary service
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Weather
Weather
Weather
is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.[1] Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere,[2][3] just below the stratosphere. Weather
Weather
refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time.[4] When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth. Weather
Weather
is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun's angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude
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True North
True north (also called geodetic north) is the direction along Earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole. Geodetic north differs from magnetic north (the direction a compass points toward the Magnetic North Pole), and from grid north (the direction northwards along the grid lines of a map projection). Geodetic true north also differs very slightly from astronomical true north (typically by a few arcseconds) because the local gravity may not point at the exact rotational axis of Earth. The direction of astronomical true north is marked in the skies by the north celestial pole. This is within about 1° of the position of Polaris, so that the star would appear to trace a tiny circle in the sky each sidereal day. Due to the axial precession of Earth, true north rotates in an arc with respect to the stars that takes approximately 25,000 years to complete
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Bikini Waxing
Bikini
Bikini
waxing is the removal of pubic hair using a special wax, which can be hot or cold, that adheres to hairs and pulls them out when the wax is removed quickly from the skin, usually with a cloth strip. While the practice is mainly associated with women, male waxing is sometimes done to remove men's pubic hair.[1] A bikini line is the area of the upper leg and inner thigh in which pubic hair grows that is normally not covered by the bottom part of a swimsuit.[2] In some cultures, visible pubic hair in this region is disliked and/or considered embarrassing and so it is sometimes removed.[2] However, some people remove pubic hair that will not be
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Course (navigation)
In navigation, a vessel's or aircraft's course is the cardinal direction along which the vessel or aircraft is to be steered. It is to be distinguished from the vessel or aircraft's heading, which is the compass direction in which the craft's bow or nose is pointed.[1][2][3]Contents1 Course, track, route and heading 2 Relationship between true and magnetic direction 3 Aircraft
Aircraft
heading 4 Relationship between course and heading 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesCourse, track, route and heading[edit] The line connecting the object's consecutive positions on the ground is referred to as the ground track. The track the object was intended to follow is called the route. For ships and aircraft, the route is represented by the great circle line that connects the previous waypoint with the next waypoint. The responsibility of a navigator is to make the track coincide as much as possible with the route. The direction of the route is called the route course
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Azimuth
An azimuth (/ˈæzɪməθ/ ( listen)) (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth. An example of azimuth is the angular direction of a star in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the local horizontal area (e.g. a circular area 5 km in radius around an observer at sea level), and the reference vector points north. The azimuth is the angle between the north vector and the star's vector on the horizontal plane.[1] Azimuth
Azimuth
is usually measured in degrees (°)
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Orville Wright
Signatures      Orville WrightBorn (1871-08-19)August 19, 1871 Dayton, OhioDied January 30, 1948(1948-01-30) (aged 76) Dayton, OhioEducation 3 years high schoolOccupation Printer/publisher, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainerWilbur WrightBorn (1867-04-16)April 16, 1867 Millville, IndianaDied May 30, 1912(1912-05-30) (aged 45) Dayton, OhioEducation 4 years high schoolOccupation Editor, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainerThe Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane
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Salt
Table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8,000 years ago, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period
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