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Ruhr (river)
The RUHR is a river in western Germany
Germany
( North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
), a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine
Rhine
. DESCRIPTION AND HISTORY The Ruhr
Ruhr
valley near Bochum
Bochum
during a flood The source of the Ruhr
Ruhr
is near the town of Winterberg
Winterberg
in the mountainous Sauerland
Sauerland
region, at an elevation of approximately 2,200 feet (670 m). It flows into the lower Rhine
Rhine
at an elevation of only 56 feet (17 m) in the municipal area of Duisburg
Duisburg
. Its total length is 218 km (135 mi), its average discharge is 79 m³/s (cubic metres per second) at Mülheim near its mouth
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Hyperinflation
In economics, HYPERINFLATION occurs when a country experiences very high and usually accelerating rates of inflation , rapidly eroding the real value of the local currency , and causing the population to minimize their holdings of local money. The population normally switches to holding relatively stable foreign currencies. Under such conditions, the general price level within an economy increases rapidly as the official currency quickly loses real value. The value of economic items remains relatively stable in terms of foreign currencies. Unlike low inflation, where the process of rising prices is protracted and not generally noticeable except by studying past market prices, hyperinflation sees a rapid and continuing increase in nominal prices, the nominal cost of goods, and in the supply of money . Typically, however, the general price level rises even more rapidly than the money supply as people try ridding themselves of the devaluing currency as quickly as possible
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland

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River Thames
The RIVER THAMES (/tɛmz/ ( listen ) TEMZ ) is a river that flows through southern England
England
, most notably through London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England
England
and the second longest in the United Kingdom , after the River Severn . It also flows through Oxford
Oxford
(where it is called Isis ), Reading , Henley-on-Thames and Windsor . The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway
Tideway
, derived from its long tidal reach up to Teddington Lock . It rises at Thames Head
Thames Head
in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary . The Thames drains the whole of Greater London
London

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Ems (river)
The EMS (German : Ems; Dutch : Eems) is a river in northwestern Germany
Germany
. It runs through the states of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
, and discharges into the Dollart
Dollart
Bay which is part of the Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea
. Its total length is 371 kilometres (231 mi). The state border between the Lower Saxon area of East Friesland (Germany) and the province of Groningen (Netherlands), whose exact course is the subject of a border dispute between Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands, runs through the Ems estuary . CONTENTS * 1 Course * 2 Tourism * 3 Cities and municipalities * 4 Tributaries * 5 History * 6 References * 7 External links COURSEThe source of the river is in the southern Teutoburg Forest
Teutoburg Forest
in North Rhine-Westphalia
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Passive Resistance
NONVIOLENT RESISTANCE (NVR or NONVIOLENT ACTION) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests , civil disobedience , economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha , or other methods, while being nonviolent . This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the resisting person or group. It is largely but wrongly taken as synonymous with civil resistance . Each of these terms—nonviolent resistance and civil resistance—has its distinct merits and also quite different connotations and commitments
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World War I
Allied victory (exception: Russian defeat) * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations . (more..
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Rur
R.U.R. is a 1920 science fiction play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek . R.U.R. stands for Rossumovi Univerzální Roboti (Rossum’s Universal Robots). However, the English phrase Rossum’s Universal Robots had been used as the subtitle in the Czech original. It premiered on 25 January 1921 and introduced the word "robot " to the English language and to science fiction as a whole. R.U.R. quickly became famous and was influential early in the history of its publication. By 1923, it had been translated into thirty languages. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people, called roboti (robots), from synthetic organic matter. They are not exactly robots by the current definition of the term: they are living flesh and blood creatures rather than machinery and are closer to the modern idea of clones . They may be mistaken for humans and can think for themselves
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Dortmund
DORTMUND ( ( listen ); Low German : Düörpm ; Latin : Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany
Germany
. It is in the middle part of the state and is considered to be the administrative, commercial and cultural centre of the eastern Ruhr
Ruhr
area . Its population of 581,612 (2015) makes it the 8th largest city in Germany. Moreover, Dortmund
Dortmund
is the largest city by area and population in the Ruhr
Ruhr
Area , an urban area with some 5.1 million (2011) inhabitants which is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany
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Occupation Of The Ruhr
The OCCUPATION OF THE RUHR (German: Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr
Ruhr
valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Passive resistance * 2.1 Sympathy for Germany * 2.2 Poincaré * 3 British perspective * 4 Aftermath * 4.1 Dawes Plan
Dawes Plan
* 4.2 German politics * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 7.1 French and German BACKGROUND Map of the occupation of the Rhineland
Rhineland
(1918–1919) The Ruhr
Ruhr
region had been occupied by Allied troops in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, during the Allied occupation of the Rhineland
Rhineland
(1918–1919)
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Weimar Republic
WEIMAR REPUBLIC (German : Weimarer Republik ( listen )) was an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar
Weimar
, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
; it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was usually known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
was written, and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar
Weimar
Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation , political extremism (with paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing); and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War
First World War

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Holzwickede
HOLZWICKEDE (German pronunciation: ) is a municipality in the district of Unna in North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany
Germany
. It is twinned with Weymouth, England and Louviers
Louviers
. MAYORS * 1969–1975: Josef Wortmann * 1975–1989: Heinrich Schürhoff * 1989–1999: Margret Mader * 1999–2015: Jenz Rother * since 2015: Fabian SeitlerREFERENCES * ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016
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Mülheim
MüLHEIM AN DER RUHR (German pronunciation: ( listen )), also described as "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany
Germany
. It is located in the Ruhr Area
Ruhr Area
between Duisburg
Duisburg
, Essen
Essen
, Oberhausen
Oberhausen
and Ratingen . It is home to many companies, especially in the food industry, such as the Aldi
Aldi
Süd Company , the Harke Group and the Tengelmann Group . Mülheim
Mülheim
received its town charter in 1808, and 100 years later the population exceeded 100,000, making Mülheim
Mülheim
officially a city. At the time of the city's 200th anniversary with approximately 170,000 residents, it was counted among the smaller cities of Germany
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Sorpe Dam
The SORPE DAM (German : Sorpetalsperre) is a dam on the Sorpe river, near the small town of Sundern
Sundern
in the district of