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Rugosa
Columnariina† Cystiphyllina† Streptelasmatina†"Tetracorallia" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904Cross-section of Stereolasma rectum, a rugose coral from the Middle Devonian
Devonian
of Erie County, New YorkThe Rugosa, also called the Tetracorallia, are an extinct order of solitary and colonial corals that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian
Permian
seas.[2] Solitary rugosans (e.g., Caninia, Lophophyllidium, Neozaphrentis, Streptelasma) are often referred to as horn corals because of a unique horn-shaped chamber with a wrinkled, or rugose, wall. Some solitary rugosans reached nearly a meter in length. However, some species of rugose corals could form large colonies (e.g., Lithostrotion)
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Rosa Rugosa
Rosa rugosa
Rosa rugosa
(rugosa rose, beach rose, Japanese rose, or Ramanas rose) is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan, Korea
Korea
and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on the coast, often on sand dunes.[1] It should not be confused with Rosa multiflora, which is also known as "Japanese rose". The Latin word "rugosa" means "wrinkled."Contents1 Description 2 Cultivation and uses 3 Invasive species 4 Vernacular names 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Rosa rugosa
Rosa rugosa
is a suckering shrub which develops new plants from the roots and forms dense thickets 1–1.50 m tall with stems densely covered in numerous short, straight prickles 3–10 mm long. The leaves are 8–15 cm long, pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, most often 7, each leaflet 3–4 cm long, with a distinctly corrugated (rugose, hence the species' name) surface
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Palaeozoic
The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
(or Palaeozoic) Era ( /ˌpeɪliəˈzoʊɪk, ˌpæ-/;[1][2] from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life"[3]) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago, and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
was a time of dramatic geological, climatic, and evolutionary change
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Colony (biology)
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another. This association is usually for mutual benefit such as stronger defense or the ability to attack bigger prey.[1] It is a cluster of identical cells (clones) on the surface of (or within) a solid medium, usually derived from a single parent cell, as in bacterial colony.[2] In contrast, a solitary organism is one in which all individuals live independently and have all of the functions needed to survive and reproduce. Colonies, in the context of development, may be composed of two or more unitary (or solitary) organisms or be modular organisms. Unitary organisms have determinate development (set life stages) from zygote to adult form and individuals or groups of individuals (colonies) are visually distinct
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Fossilworks
Fossilworks is a portal which provides query, download, and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world. History[edit] Fossilworks was created in 2013 by John Alroy and is housed at Macquarie University. It includes many analysis and data visualization tools formerly included in the Paleobiology Database.[1] References[edit]^ "Frequently asked questions". Fossilworks. Retrieved 21 May 2014. External links[edit]"Fossilworks"
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Encyclopedia Of Life
The Encyclopedia of Life
Life
(EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world.[2] It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text.[3] In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation
MacArthur Foundation
and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively
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Calcite
Calcite
Calcite
is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 3 as "calcite". Other polymorphs of calcium carbonate are the minerals aragonite and vaterite. Aragonite
Aragonite
will change to calcite over timescales of days or less at temperatures exceeding 300°C[5][6], and vaterite is even less stable.Contents1 Etymology1.1 "Alabaster", as used by archaeologists2 Properties 3 Use and applications 4 Natural occurrence 5 Formation processes 6 In Earth history 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 Further readingEtymology[edit] Calcite
Calcite
is derived from the German Calcit, a term coined in the 19th century from the Latin word for lime, calx (genitive calcis) with the suffix -ite used to name minerals
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Animal Diversity Web
Animal
Animal
Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database that collects the natural history, classification, species characteristics, conservation biology, and distribution information on thousands of species of animals. It includes thousands of photographs, hundreds of sound clips, and a virtual museum.Contents1 Overview 2 Background 3 Animal
Animal
Diversity Web Resource 4 Animal
Animal
Diversity Web Educational Importance 5 Partnerships 6 Staff 7 References 8 External linksOverview[edit] The ADW acts as an online encyclopedia, with each individual species account displaying basic information specific to that species. The website used a local, relational database written by staff and contributors
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Benthic
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos, e.g. the benthic invertebrate community, including crustaceans and polychaetes.[1] The organisms generally live in close relationship with the substrate bottom and many are permanently attached to the bottom. The superficial layer of the soil lining the given body of water, the benthic boundary layer, is an integral part of the benthic zone, as it greatly influences the biological activity that takes place there
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Endobiont
An endosymbiont or endobiont[1] is any organism that lives to mutual benefit within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. in an endosymbiosis (Greek: ἔνδον endon "within", σύν syn "together" and βίωσις biosis "living"). Examples are nitrogen-fixing bacteria (called rhizobia), which live in root nodules on legume roots, single-cell algae inside reef-building corals, and bacterial endosymbionts that provide essential nutrients to about 10–15% of insects. Many instances of endosymbiosis are obligate; that is, either the endosymbiont or the host cannot survive without the other, such as the gutless marine worms of the genus Riftia, which get nutrition from their endosymbiotic bacteria. The most common examples of obligate endosymbioses are mitochondria and chloroplasts. Some human parasites, e.g. Wuchereria bancrofti and Mansonella perstans, thrive in their intermediate insect hosts because of an obligate endosymbiosis with Wolbachia spp
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Corallite
A corallite is the skeletal cup, formed by an individual stony coral polyp, in which the polyp sits and into which it can retract. The cup is composed of aragonite, a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, and is secreted by the polyp. Corallites vary in size, but in most colonial corals they are less than 3 mm (0.12 in) in diameter.[1] The inner surface of the corallite is known as the calyx. The vertical blades inside the calyx are known as septa and in some species, these ridges continue outside the corallite wall as costae.[2] Where there is no corallite wall, the blades are known as septocostae. The septa, costae and septocostae may have ornamentation in the form of teeth and may be thick, thin or variable in size. Sometimes there are paliform lobes, in the form of rods or blades, rising from the inner margins of the septa. These may form a neat circle called the paliform crown
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Kunstformen Der Natur
Kunstformen der Natur
Kunstformen der Natur
(known in English as Art Forms in Nature) is a book of lithographic and halftone prints by German biologist Ernst Haeckel.Contents1 Publication 2 Themes 3 Influence 4 Gallery of prints 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksPublication[edit] Originally published in sets of ten between 1899 and 1904 and collectively in two volumes in 1904,[2] it consists of 100 prints of various organisms, many of which were first described by Haeckel himself
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Septum (coral)
In corals, a septum (plural septa) is one of the radiating vertical plates lying within the corallite wall. Outside the corallite wall these plates are known as costae (singular costa).[1] The septa may be thick, thin or vary in size. They may have teeth which range from needle-like to blade-like and are often characteristic of different genera.[2] References[edit]^ Sprung, Julian (1999). Corals: A quick reference guide. Ricordea Publishing. pp. 220–223. ISBN 1-883693-09-8.  ^ "Septa". Coral
Coral
Hub
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Ohio
Ohio
Ohio
/oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
of the United States. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio
Ohio
River
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World Register Of Marine Species
The World Register of Marine Species
World Register of Marine Species
(WoRMS) is a database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.[1]Contents1 Contents 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksContents[edit] The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialists on each group of organism. These taxonomists control the quality of the information, which is gathered from malacological journals and several regional and taxon-specific databases. WoRMS maintains valid names of all marine organisms, but also provides information on synonyms and invalid names. It will be an ongoing task to maintain the registry, as new species are constantly being discovered and described by scientists
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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