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Royal And Noble Ranks
Traditional rank amongst European royalty , peers , and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages . Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke ), the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences. CONTENTS* 1 Ranks and title * 1.1 Sovereign * 1.2 Other sovereigns, royalty, peers, and major nobility * 1.3 Minor nobility, gentry, and other aristocracy * 2 Corresponding titles of nobility between languages * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links RANKS AND TITLE _ This article contains embedded lists that MAY BE POORLY DEFINED, UNVERIFIED OR INDISCRIMINATE . Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. (November 2016)_SOVEREIGN Main articles: Monarch and Sovereign _ It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Royal title _. (Discuss ) _(November 2016)_ _ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved: an invasion being repulsed, for instance. Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey , from a 13th-century chronicle. Monarchic rule was the most common form of government until the 19th century
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as _the throne_ or _the crown _) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication . If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy to another and in different eras; on one extreme, they may be autocrats (absolute monarchy ) wielding genuine sovereignty; on the other they may be ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve powers , with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy ). A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada
Canada
and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union
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Monarchism
MONARCHISM is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. A MONARCHIST is an individual who supports this form of government, independent of any specific monarch; one who espouses a particular monarch is a royalist . Conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is sometimes referred to as republicanism . Depending on the country, a monarchist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a pretender , or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current monarchies * 3 Justifications for monarchism * 3.1 Nonpartisan head of state * 3.2 Safeguard for liberty * 3.3 Connection to the past * 3.4 Human desire for hierarchy * 4 Monarchists * 4.1 American * 4.2 Australian * 4.3 Austrian * 4.4 Brazilian * 4.5 British * 4.6 German * 4.7 Greek * 4.8 Japan * 4.9 Polish * 4.10 Portuguese * 4.11 Russian * 4.12 Turkish * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYMonarchical rule is among the oldest political institutions. Monarchy
Monarchy
has often claimed legitimacy from a higher power (in early modern Europe
Europe
the divine right of kings , and in China the Mandate of Heaven ). In England, royalty ceded power elsewhere in a gradual process
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Divine Right Of Kings
The DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, DIVINE RIGHT, or GOD\'S MANDATE is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy . It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
God
. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy , or any other estate of the realm . It implies that only God
God
can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God
God
and may constitute a sacrilegious act. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God
God
", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch. CONTENTS* 1 Origins * 1.1 Scots texts of James VI of Scotland * 2 Western conceptions * 2.1 Catholic justified submission * 3 Divine right and protestantism * 4 Divine right in Asia * 4.1 Mandate of Heaven * 4.2 Sultans in Southeast Asia * 4.3 South Asian kings * 5 Rights
Rights
* 6 Opposition * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ORIGINSIn the pagan world, kings were often seen as either ruling with the backing of heavenly powers or perhaps even being divine beings themselves
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Mandate Of Heaven
The MANDATE OF HEAVEN (天命) was a Chinese political and religious doctrine used to justify the rule of the emperor of China
China
. According to this belief, heaven (天, Tian
Tian
)—which embodies the natural order and will of the universe—bestows the mandate on a just ruler , the Son of Heaven . If a ruler was overthrown, this was interpreted as an indication that the ruler was unworthy, and had lost the mandate. It was also a common belief that natural disasters such as famine and flood were signs of heaven's displeasure with the ruler, so there would often be revolts following major disasters as citizens saw these as signs that the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
had been withdrawn. The Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
does not require a legitimate ruler to be of noble birth, and dynasties such as the Han and Ming dynasties were founded by men of common origins. The Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
had no time limitations, depending instead on the just and able performance of the rulers and their heirs. The concept is in some ways similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings ; however, unlike the European concept, it does not confer an unconditional right to rule. Intrinsic to the concept of the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
was the right of rebellion against an unjust ruler
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Absolute Monarchy
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, or DESPOTIC MONARCHY, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature , or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies . In contrast, in constitutional monarchies , the head of state 's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature . Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other governmental bodies the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where monarchs still maintain absolute power are: Brunei , Oman , Saudi Arabia , Swaziland , Vatican City and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates , which itself is a free association of such monarchies – a federal monarchy . CONTENTS* 1 Historical examples * 1.1 Outside Europe * 1.2 Europe * 1.2.1 France * 1.2.2 Denmark-Norway * 1.2.3 Prussia * 1.2.4 Russia * 1.2.5 Sweden * 2 Contemporary monarchies * 2.1 Current absolute monarchies * 2.1.1 Saudi Arabia * 3 Scholarship * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORICAL EXAMPLESOUTSIDE EUROPEIn Ancient Egypt , the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people
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Composite Monarchy
A COMPOSITE MONARCHY (or COMPOSITE STATE) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger in 1975 and popularised by J. H. Elliott , that describes early modern states consisting of several countries under one ruler, who governs his territories as if they were separate kingdoms, in accordance with local traditions and legal structures. The composite state was the typical kind in the early modern period . Koenigsberger divides composite states into two classes: those, like the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
, that consisted of countries separated by either other states or by the sea, and those, like Poland–Lithuania , that were contiguous. Theorists of the 16th century believed that "conformity" (similarity in language and customs) was important to success of a composite state. Francesco Guicciardini praised the acquisition of the Kingdom of Navarre by the King of Aragon in 1512 on account of their conformità. Yet, differences could be persistent. Navarre retained its own law and customs separate from the rest of Spain down to 1841. In France, a far more unified state than Spain in the early modern period, the state was divided into different customary tax regimes, the pays d\'élection and pays d\'état . This was abolished during the 1789 Revolution
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten . While most monarchs may hold formal authority and the government may legally operate in the monarch's name, in the form typical in Europe the monarch no longer personally sets public policy or chooses political leaders. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor , paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay , has defined a constitutional monarch as "a sovereign who reigns but does not rule"
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Diarchy
A DIARCHY (from Greek δι-, _di-_, "double", and -αρχία, _-arkhía_, "ruled") or DUUMVIRATE (from Latin
Latin
_duumvirātus_, "the office of the two men") is a form of government characterized by CORULE, with two people ruling a polity together either lawfully or by collusion and force . The leaders of such a system are usually known as CORULERS. Historically, 'diarchy' particularly referred to the system of shared rule in British India
British India
established by the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 which devolved some powers to local councils which had included native Indian representation since 1892 . 'Duumvirate' principally referred to the offices of the various duumvirs established by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. Both, along with less common synonyms such as BIARCHY and TANDEMOCRACY, are now used more generally to refer to any system of joint rule or office. A monarchy temporarily controlled by two or more people is, however, usually distinguished as a coregency . Corule is one of the oldest forms of government. Historical examples include Sparta
Sparta
's joint kingdom , Rome 's consuls , and Carthage 's judges , and several ancient Polynesian societies. Systems of inheritance that often led to corule in Germanic and Dacian monarchies may be included as well, as may the dual occupants of the ranks of the Incan Empire
Empire

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Dual Monarchy
DUAL MONARCHY occurs when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch , follow the same foreign policy , exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing . The term is typically used to refer to Austria-Hungary , a dual monarchy that existed from 1867 to 1918. In the 1870s, using the Dual Monarchy
Monarchy
of Austria–Hungary as a model, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) and William Ewart Gladstone proposed that Ireland
Ireland
and Great Britain
Great Britain
form a dual monarchy. Their efforts were unsuccessful, but the idea was later used in 1904 by Arthur Griffith in his seminal work, The Resurrection of Hungary . Griffith noted how in 1867 Hungary went from being part of the Austrian Empire to a separate co-equal kingdom in Austria-Hungary. Though not a monarchist himself, Griffith advocated such an approach for the Anglo-Irish relationship . The idea was not embraced by other Irish political leaders, and Ireland
Ireland
eventually fought a war of independence (1919–1921) to leave the Union of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
and form a separate state, the Irish Free State in 1922
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Elective Monarchy
An ELECTIVE MONARCHY is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a _hereditary monarchy _ in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance. The manner of election, the nature of candidate qualifications, and the electors vary from case to case. Historically it is not uncommon for elective monarchies to transform into hereditary ones over time, or for hereditary ones to acquire at least occasional elective aspects
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Emirate
An EMIRATE is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Islamic monarch styled emir . It also means _principality_. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 As monarchies * 3 As provinces * 4 List of present Emirates * 5 List of former and integrated emirates * 5.1 Europe * 5.1.1 Iberia * 5.1.2 Mediterranean region * 5.1.3 Caucasus
Caucasus
* 5.2 Asia * 5.2.1 Near East * 5.2.2 Arabia
Arabia
* 5.2.3 Central Asia and Indian subcontinent * 5.3 Africa * 5.3.1 North Africa * 5.3.2 Nigeria
Nigeria
* 6 See also * 7 References ETYMOLOGYEtymologically EMIRATE or AMIRATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: إمارة‎‎ _imārah_, plural: إمارات _imārāt_) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir (prince, commander, governor etc.). AS MONARCHIESThe United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
is a federal state that comprises seven federal emirates, each administered by a hereditary emir, these seven forming the electoral college for the federation's President and Prime Minister. As most emirates have either disappeared, been integrated in a larger modern state or changed their rulers' styles, e.g. to malik ( Arabic
Arabic
for king) or sultan , such true emirate-states have become rare
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Ethnarch
ETHNARCH, pronounced /ˈɛθnɑːrk/ , the anglicized form of ETHNARCHES (Greek : ἐθνάρχης), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or homogeneous kingdom. The word is derived from the Greek words ἔθνος (ethnos , "tribe/nation") and ἄρχων (archon , "leader/ruler"). Strong\'s Concordance gives the definition of 'ethnarch' as "the governor (not king) of a district." CONTENTS * 1 Antiquity * 2 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 3 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* 4 Modern Greece and Cyprus
Cyprus
* 5 Notes * 6 References and sources ANTIQUITYThe title first appeared in the Hellenistic Middle East
Middle East
, possibly in Judea . In the First book of Maccabees the word is used three times ( 1 Maccabees 14:47 and 15:1-2), where Simon Thassi
Simon Thassi
is referred to as the high priest and ethnarch of the Judeans. It was used in the region even after it fell under the dominion of Rome, and until the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, to refer to rulers of vassal kingdoms who did not rise to the level of kings . The Romans used the terms natio and gens for a people as a genetic and cultural entity, regardless of political statehood
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Federal Monarchy
A FEDERAL MONARCHY is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation. CONTENTS * 1 As a term in political science * 2 Federal monarchies * 2.1 Historically * 2.2 Currently * 3 List of federal monarchies * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links AS A TERM IN POLITICAL SCIENCEThe term was introduced into English political and historical discourse by Edward Augustus Freeman
Edward Augustus Freeman
, in his History of Federal Government (1863). Freeman himself thought a federal monarchy only possible in the abstract. FEDERAL MONARCHIESHISTORICALLYHistorically, the most prominent example of a federal monarchy in the Western world was the German Empire
Empire
(1871–1918) and, to a lesser extent, its predecessors. The head of state of the federation was a monarch, the German Emperor
German Emperor
, who was also head of state of the largest constituent part to the federation as King of Prussia
King of Prussia
, while other constituent kingdoms, such as the Kingdom of Bavaria , Kingdom of Saxony or Kingdom of Württemberg , retained their own monarchs and armies
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