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Royal Air Force
The ROYAL AIR FORCE (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force . Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history , in particular, playing a large part in the Second World War
Second World War
where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
. The RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence (MoD), which are to "provide the capabilities needed: to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and overseas territories, including against terrorism; to support the Government’s foreign policy objectives particularly in promoting international peace and security". The RAF describe its mission statement as "... An _agile_, _adaptable_ and _capable_ Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power , which guides its strategy
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Royal Air Force (other)
The ROYAL AIR FORCE is the United Kingdom's air force. ROYAL AIR FORCE may also refer to: AIR FORCES * Royal Air Force of Oman * Royal Australian Air Force * Royal Bahraini Air Force * Royal Brunei Air Force * Royal Cambodian Air Force * Royal Canadian Air Force * Royal Danish Air Force * Royal Malaysian Air Force * Royal Moroccan Air Force * Royal Netherlands Air Force * Royal New Zealand Air Force * Royal Norwegian Air Force * Royal Saudi Air Force * Royal Thai Air Force * Regia Aeronautica ("Royal Air Force"), Italy's air force from 1923 to 1946 * Royal Hellenic Air Force , an air force from 1935 to 1973OTHER USES * Real Fuerza Aérea , a Mexican wrestling group This disambiguation page lists articles about military units and formations which are associated with the same title. If an internal link referred you to this page, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Royal_Air_Force_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Badge Of The Royal Air Force
The BADGE OF THE ROYAL AIR FORCE is the heraldic emblem used to represent the RAF which features an Eagle superimposed on a circlet which is surmounted by a crown. The badge was based on a design by a tailor at Gieves Ltd of Savile Row . It was first used in August 1918 and the original circlet showed a garter and buckle . The present plain circlet dates from 26 January 1923 when the badge was registered at the College of Arms and, it being noted that the garter and buckle were heraldically incorrect, a substitution was made. In heraldic terms it is: "In front of a circle inscribed with the motto Per Ardua Ad Astra and ensigned by the Imperial Crown an eagle volant and affronty Head lowered and to the sinister." Although there have been debates among airmen over the years whether the bird was originally meant to be an albatross or an eagle, the consensus is that it was always an eagle. The badge is depicted on the iron gates at the ceremonial entrance to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell ; at the entrance to the Air Forces Memorial in Surrey; and on the Polish War Memorial in London. * The RAF Badge on Cranwell's gates * The RAF badge at the Air Forces Memorial * The RAF Badge on the Polish War Memorial OTHER AIR FORCESOther Commonwealth air forces have adopted badges which are based on the RAF badge
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Elizabeth II
ELIZABETH II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926 ) has been Queen of the United Kingdom , Canada , Australia , and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Additionally, she is Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of 12 countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica , Barbados , the Bahamas , Grenada , Papua New Guinea , Solomon Islands , Tuvalu , Saint Lucia , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Belize , Antigua and Barbuda , and Saint Kitts and Nevis . Elizabeth was born in London as the elder child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth , and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive . She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War , serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service . In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales ; Anne, Princess Royal ; Prince Andrew, Duke of York ; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
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Air Force
An AIR FORCE, also known in some countries as an AIR ARMY, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare . More specifically, it is the branch of a nation 's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army , navy , or a marine corps . Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air , carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions, and providing support to land and naval forces . The term "air force" may also refer to a tactical air force or numbered air force , which is an operational formation either within a national air force or comprising several air components from allied nations. Air forces typically consist of a combination of fighters , bombers , helicopters , transport planes and other aircraft. Many air forces are also responsible for operations of the military space , intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), and communications equipment. Some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as anti-aircraft artillery , surface-to-air missiles , or anti-ballistic missile warning networks and defensive systems
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Aerial Warfare
AERIAL WARFARE is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare . Aerial warfare includes bombers attacking enemy installations or a concentration of enemy troops or strategic targets ; fighter aircraft battling for control of airspace ; attack aircraft engaging in close air support against ground targets; naval aviation flying against sea and nearby land targets; gliders , helicopters and other aircraft to carry airborne forces such as paratroopers ; aerial refueling tankers to extend operation time or range; and military transport aircraft to move cargo and personnel. Historically, military aircraft have included lighter-than-air balloons carrying artillery observers ; lighter-than-air airships for bombing cities; various sorts of reconnaissance , surveillance and early warning aircraft carrying observers, cameras and radar equipment; torpedo bombers to attack enemy shipping; and military air-sea rescue aircraft for saving downed airmen . Modern aerial warfare includes missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles . Surface forces are likely to respond to enemy air activity with anti-aircraft warfare
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Whitehall
WHITEHALL is a road in the City of Westminster , Central London , which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea . It is the main thoroughfare running south from Trafalgar Square towards Parliament Square . The street is recognised as the centre of the Government of the United Kingdom and is lined with numerous departments and ministries including the Ministry of Defence , Horse Guards and the Cabinet Office . Consequently, the name "Whitehall" is used as a metonym for British civil service , and as the geographic name for the surrounding area. The name was taken from the Palace of Whitehall that was the residence of Kings Henry VIII through to William III , before its destruction by fire in 1698; only the Banqueting House survived. Whitehall was originally a wide road that led to the front of the palace; the route to the south was widened in the 18th century following the destruction of the palace. As well as government buildings, the street is known for its memorial statues and monuments, including Britain's primary war memorial, the Cenotaph . The Whitehall Theatre, now the Trafalgar Studios , has been a popular place for farce comedies since the mid-20th century
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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Per Ardua Ad Astra
_PER ARDUA AD ASTRA_ ("Through adversity to the stars" or "Through struggle to the stars" ) is the motto of the Royal Air Force and other Commonwealth air forces such as the RAAF , RCAF , RNZAF , the SAAF , as well as the Royal Indian Air Force until 1947. It dates from 1912 and was used by the newly formed Royal Flying Corps . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Variants * 3 Other uses * 3.1 Mottoes * 3.2 Miscellaneous * 4 See also * 5 References ORIGIN _ Per ardua ad astra_ badge on the Polish War Memorial _ The Royal Air Force crest: Per ardua ad astra_ on the 1918 headstone of Lieutenant J. D. Lightbody in Scheldewindeke , Belgium The first Commanding Officer of the Royal Flying Corps (Military Wing) was Colonel Frederick Sykes . He asked his officers to come up with a motto for the new service; one which would produce a strong esprit de corps . Not long after this, two junior officers were walking from the Officers' Mess at Farnborough to Cody's Shed on Laffan Plain. As they walked they discussed the problem of the motto and one of them, Lieutenant J. S. Yule, mentioned the phrase _Sic itur ad Astra _, from Virgil
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Royal Air Force March Past
The "ROYAL AIR FORCE MARCH PAST" is the official march of the Royal Air Force (RAF) and is used in some other Commonwealth air forces. The original score was completed by Walford Davies in 1918 for the new RAF; it combined the rhythm of the bugle call of the Royal Flying Corps with that of the Royal Naval Air Service . The call appears in both the introduction and the coda . It was originally known as the ADASTRAL I (in reference to the RAF\'s motto ). The second part of the march past, the trio , was composed by Sir George Dyson . The march can be played both as a slow march and a quick march, and has been used as both when the Queen\'s Colour Squadron and RAF Central Band perform public duties such as mounting the guard at Buckingham Palace . CONTENTS * 1 Canadian version * 2 Lyrics * 3 Audio samples * 4 References CANADIAN VERSIONAuthority was granted in February 1943 by His Majesty\'s Stationery Office to publish the "RAF March Past" piece in Canada under the title "RCAF March Past". It was the official march of the Royal Canadian Air Force until the unification of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1968. It continued to be the authorized march of Air Command and the Air Operations Branch of the Canadian Forces from 1968-2011. In 2011 Air Command reverted its name to Royal Canadian Air Force and the RCAF March Past continues as the official march of the RCAF
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Chief Of The Air Staff (United Kingdom)
The CHIEF OF THE AIR STAFF (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board . The post was created in 1918 with Major-General Sir Hugh Trenchard as the first incumbent. The current and 31st Chief of the Air Staff is Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier , who succeeded Sir Andrew Pulford in July 2016. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Chiefs of the Air Staff * 3 See also * 3.1 Other service chiefs * 3.2 Generally relevant * 4 References HISTORYThe post was established in January 1918, just prior to the official formation of the RAF, and its first occupant was Major-General Sir Hugh Trenchard . Following Trenchard's resignation in March 1918 after disagreements with the first air minister, his rival Major-General Sir Frederick Sykes was appointed. For political reasons Trenchard's resignation did not take effect until late April in order that he would be CAS when the RAF was formed. With Churchill's post-War appointment as Secretary of State for War and Air, Sykes was moved sideways to head up the nascent Civil Aviation ministry and Trenchard returned as Chief of the Air Staff. In the early 1920s Trenchard had to fight to keep the RAF from being divided and being absorbed back into the Royal Navy and the British Army . After Lord Trenchard retired in 1930 there were still suggestions that the RAF should be broken up, but Trenchard's foundations proved solid
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Stephen Hillier
Air Chief Marshal SIR STEPHEN JOHN HILLIER, KCB , CBE , DFC , ADC is a senior Royal Air Force officer, who served as Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff (Capability) . He won the Distinguished Flying Cross for actions in the Gulf in 1999 and was awarded the US Bronze Star Medal for service in the Iraq War . He went on to be Air Officer Commanding, No. 2 Group , Director Information Superiority at the Ministry of Defence and then Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff (Capability) . Hillier succeeded Air Chief Marshal Andrew Pulford as Chief of the Air Staff on 12 July 2016. SERVICE CAREERHillier was commissioned as an acting pilot officer on 6 November 1980, and regraded to pilot officer (after Initial Officer Training) on 6 November 1981. He was promoted to flying officer on 6 November 1982. He was a pilot – flying the Tornado aircraft – and served in the 1991 Gulf War . He was promoted to squadron leader on 1 July 1991 and wing commander on 1 July 1996, and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his actions commanding II (AC) Squadron in the Gulf during Operation Southern Watch on 29 October 1999. Promoted to group captain on 1 July 2000, Hillier became station commander at RAF Lossiemouth . He then served in the Iraq War , being awarded the US Bronze Star Medal on 31 October 2003
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Knight Commander Of The Order Of The Bath
The MOST HONOURABLE ORDER OF THE BATH (formerly the MOST HONOURABLE MILITARY ORDER OF THE BATH) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight , which involved bathing (as a symbol of purification) as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not (as is commonly believed) revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign (currently Queen Elizabeth II ), the Great Master (currently The Prince of Wales ), and three Classes of members: * KNIGHT GRAND CROSS (GCB ) _or_ DAME GRAND CROSS (GCB ) * KNIGHT COMMANDER (KCB ) _or_ DAME COMMANDER (DCB ) * COMPANION (CB )Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had only a single class, KNIGHT COMPANION (KB), which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now usually senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members
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