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Royal Academy Schools
The ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House
Burlington House
on Piccadilly
Piccadilly
in London. It has a unique position as an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects; its purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Activities * 3 Royal Academy Schools * 4 Library, archive, and collections * 4.1 Wall and ceiling paintings * 4.2 Michelangelo\'s Taddei Tondo
Taddei Tondo
* 5 War memorials * 6 Membership * 7 See also * 8 References and sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition
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Thomas Gainsborough
THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH FRSA (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter, draughtsman, and printmaker. He surpassed his rival Sir Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds
to become the dominant British portraitist of the second half of the 18th century. He painted quickly, and the works of his maturity are characterised by a light palette and easy strokes. He preferred landscapes to portraits, and is credited (with Richard Wilson ) as the originator of the 18th-century British landscape school. Gainsborough was a founding member of the Royal Academy
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Nathaniel Dance-Holland
SIR NATHANIEL DANCE-HOLLAND, 1ST BARONET RA (8 May 1735 – 15 October 1811) was a notable English portrait painter and later a politician . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Family * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEThe third son of architect George Dance the Elder , Dance (he added the 'Holland' suffix later in life) studied art under Francis Hayman , and like many contemporaries also studied in Italy. There he met Angelica Kauffman
Angelica Kauffman
, and painted several historic and classical paintings. CAREEROn his return to England, he became a successful portrait painter. With Hayman and his architect brother George Dance the Younger , he was one of the founder members of the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
in 1768
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John Gwynn (architect)
JOHN GWYNN RA (1713 – 28 February 1786) was an English architect and civil engineer, who became one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768. He advocated greater control over planning in London, for which he produced detailed suggestions. His buildings include Magdalen Bridge
Magdalen Bridge
and the Covered Market in Oxford, and several bridges over the River Severn. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 References * 3 Sources * 4 External links LIFEGwynn was born and died in Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
, Shropshire
Shropshire
. He worked initially as a carpenter, but then decided to practice as a (largely self-taught) architect and town planner, moving to London
London
, where he became a friend of Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson

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Francis Hayman
FRANCIS HAYMAN RA (1708 – 2 February 1776) was an English painter and illustrator who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and later its first librarian. Born in Exeter
Exeter
, Devon, Hayman begun his artistic career as a scene painter in London's Drury Lane
Drury Lane
theatre (where he also appeared in minor roles) before establishing a studio in St Martin\'s Lane . A versatile artist influenced by the French Rococo
Rococo
style, he achieved some note during the 1740s through decorative paintings executed for the supper boxes at Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London. Hayman was also a successful portraitist and history painter
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Nathaniel Hone The Elder
NATHANIEL HONE RA (24 April 1718 – 14 August 1784) was an Irish -born portrait and miniature painter , and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
in 1768. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Works * 2.1 The Conjuror * 3 Family * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEThe son of a Dublin
Dublin
-based Dutch merchant, Hone moved to England
England
as a young man and, after marrying Molly Earle - daughter of the Duke of Argyll - in 1742, eventually settled in London
London
, by which time he had acquired a reputation as a portrait-painter. While his paintings were popular, his reputation was particularly enhanced by his skill at producing miniatures and enamels . He interrupted his time in London by spending two years (1750–52) studying in Italy
Italy

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George Dance The Younger
GEORGE DANCE THE YOUNGER, RA (1 April 1741 – 14 January 1825) was an English architect and surveyor as well as a portraitist . The fifth and youngest son of the architect George Dance (the elder) , he came from a family of architects, artists and dramatists. He was described by Sir John Summerson
John Summerson
as "among the few really outstanding architects of the century", but few of his buildings remain
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Francis Cotes
FRANCIS COTES RA (20 May 1726 – 16 July 1770) was an English painter , one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founding member of the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
in 1768. LIFE AND WORK Francis Cotes
Francis Cotes
R.A. Portrait of Stephen Fox-Strangways, 1st Earl of Ilchester He was born in London
London
, the eldest son of Robert Cotes, an apothecary (Francis's younger brother Samuel Cotes
Samuel Cotes
(1734–1818) also became an artist, specialising in miniatures). Cotes trained with portrait painter George Knapton (1698–1778) before setting up his own business in his father's business premises in London's Cork Street —learning, incidentally, much about chemistry to inform his making of pastels
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Giovanni Battista Cipriani
GIOVANNI BATTISTA CIPRIANI RA (1727 – 14 December 1785) was an Italian painter and engraver , who lived in England
England
from 1755. He is also called GIUSEPPE CIPRIANI by some authors. Much of his work consisted of designs for prints, many of which were engraved by his friend Francesco Bartolozzi
Francesco Bartolozzi
. LIFECipriani was born in Florence
Florence
. His family were originally from Pistoia . He first studied with Ignatius Hugford , a Florentine artist of English descent, and then under Anton Domenico Gabbiani
Anton Domenico Gabbiani
. He spent the years 1750–53 in Rome
Rome
, where he became acquainted with the architect, Sir William Chambers , and the sculptor, Joseph Wilton whom he accompanied to England
England
in August 1755
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Agostino Carlini
AUGOSTINO CARLINI or AGOSTINO CARLINI RA (c. 1718 – 15 August 1790) was an Italian sculptor and painter, who was born in Genoa but settled in England . He was also one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. LIFEHe features in a group portrait, by Johann Zoffany , of the founders, and is one of three sitters (with Francesco Bartolozzi and Giovanni Battista Cipriani ) in a 1777 portrait displayed in the National Portrait Gallery in London . He was Keeper of the Royal Academy from 1783 until his death in 1790. He exhibited a portrait in oil in 1776. He worked, with fellow Italian sculptor Giuseppe Ceracchi at Somerset House , and on statues at Custom House in Dublin
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Charles Catton
CHARLES CATTON RA (1728 in Norwich – 28 August 1798, in London ), sometimes referred to as CHARLES CATTON THE ELDER, was a notable English coach painter , landscape , animal and figure painter of the late 18th century, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy . CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links LIFE AND WORKCatton was born in Norwich , Norfolk, in 1728, and said to be one of 35 children that his father had from his two marriages. He was apprenticed to a London coach painter, or, according to some sources, a carpenter by the name of Maxwell, and studied drawing at the St. Martin\'s Lane Academy . He was mainly known as a landscape and animal painter, but also had a good knowledge of the figure, and a talent for humorous design. In 1781, he published an etching called The Margate Packet. He became a member of the Society of Artists , and exhibited various pictures in its galleries in 1760–4
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Mason Chamberlin
MASON CHAMBERLIN RA (1727–1787) was an English portrait painter , who was one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. He was a student of Francis Hayman . He is perhaps best remembered for his portrait of Benjamin Franklin. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Franklin portrait * 3 Death * 4 Family * 5 References LIFEChamberlin was a pupil of Francis Hayman . In 1768 he was one of the founding members of the Royal Academy . He exhibited 50 works at the academy between 1769 and 1786. All were portraits. The subjects of most of them are unnamed in the catalogues, but in 1771 he showed a full-length painting of Prince Edward and Princess Augusta, and in 1774 one of Catharine Macaulay . He also showed 22 works at the Society of Artists and two at the Free Society of Artists. His address is given as 7, Stuart Street, Spitalfields in the Academy catalogues, and later, from 1785, as 10, Bartlett's Buildings
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Angelica Kauffman
MARIA ANNA ANGELIKA KAUFFMANN RA (30 October 1741 – 5 November 1807), usually known in English as ANGELICA KAUFFMAN, was a Swiss Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome. Remembered primarily as a history painter, Kauffmann was a skilled portraitist, landscape and decoration painter. She was one of the two female founding members of the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
in London in 1768. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Years in Great Britain * 3 History painting
History painting
* 4 Later years in Rome
Rome
* 5 Legacy * 6 Gallery * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Exhibitions * 10 Further reading * 11 External links EARLY LIFEKauffman was born at Chur
Chur
in Graubünden
Graubünden
, Switzerland
Switzerland

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Jeremiah Meyer
JEREMIAH MEYER RA (born Jeremias Majer; 18 January 1735 – 20 January 1789) was an 18th-century English miniature painter . He was Painter in Miniatures to Queen Charlotte , Painter in Enamels to King George III and was one of the founder members of the Royal Academy . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Personal life * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONMeyer was born in Tübingen as a son of the German painter Wolfgang Dietrich Majer. In about 1750 he was brought to England by his father, though sources disagree on date and age. In 1757–8, Meyer studied enamel painting with Christian Friedrich Zincke , paying £400 for tuition and materials. His style was influenced by attention to detail of the work of Joshua Reynolds . CAREERMeyer's background as an enamel painter contrasted with the training of contemporary English miniaturists such as Samuel Finney and Gervase Spencer
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Dominic Serres
DOMINIC SERRES RA (1722–1793), also known as Dominic Serres the Elder, was a French -born painter strongly associated with the English school of painting , and with paintings with a naval or marine theme. Such were his connections with the English art world, that he became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and was later briefly (from 1792 until his death) its librarian. Born in Auch , Gascony , he was initially expected to train as a priest but instead travelled to Spain and became a ship’s captain, sailing to Cuba . He was taken prisoner by the British navy towards the end of the 1740s and eventually settled in London in about 1758, where it is believed he trained as a painter in Northamptonshire and later in London under Charles Brooking . If Serres did not settle in London until 1758, however, he could not have studied for long under Charles Brooking, since Brooking was buried on 25 March 1759
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Paul Sandby
PAUL SANDBY RA (1731 – 9 November 1809) was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in watercolours , who, along with his older brother Thomas , became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFE AND WORK Paul Sandby
Paul Sandby
by Sir William Beechey
Sir William Beechey
, 1789, National Portrait Gallery, London Sandby was born in Nottingham, and baptised there in 1731, although his date of birth has traditionally been given as 1725. In 1745 he moved to London where he followed his brother Thomas in obtaining an appointment in the military drawing department at the Tower of London
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