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Rosa Damascena
Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the Damask
Damask
rose,[1][2] or sometimes as the rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata.[3] Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose.[4] The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for rose oil (either "rose otto" or "rose absolute") used in perfumery and to make rose water and "rose concrete". The flower petals are also edible
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Robert I, Count Of Dreux
Robert I of Dreux, nicknamed the Great (c. 1123 – 11 October 1188), was the fifth son of Louis VI of France
Louis VI of France
and Adélaide de Maurienne.[1] Through his mother he was related to the Carolingians and to the Marquess William V of Montferrat. In 1137 he received the County of Dreux
County of Dreux
as an appanage from his father. He held this title until 1184 when he granted it to his son Robert II. In 1139 he married Agnes de Garlande.[2] In 1145, he married Hawise of Salisbury.[3] By his third marriage to Agnes de Baudemont
Baudemont
in 1152,[4] he received the County of Braine-sur-Vesle, and the lordships of Fère-en-Tardenois, Pontarcy, Nesle, Longueville, Quincy-en-Tardenois, Savigny, and Baudemont.[5] Robert I participated in the Second Crusade
Second Crusade
and was at the Siege of Damascus in 1148
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Siege Of Damascus (1148)
Muslim victoryCrusader withdrawal Damascus
Damascus
acquired by Nur ad-Din Zangi.BelligerentsCrusaders Kingdom of Jerusalem Knights Templar Knights Hospitaller Holy Roman Empire Swabia Kingdom of France FlandersMuslim forces:Burids ZengidsCommanders and leaders Baldwin III of Jerusalem Conrad III of Germany Louis VII of France Thierry, Count of Flanders Mu'in ad-Din Unur Saif ad-Din Ghazi I Nur ad-Din ZangiStrength50,000 UnknownCasualties and lossesUnknown Unknownv t eZengid–Cru
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Second Crusade
Islamic victoryDecisive Seljuk Turks victory in Anatolia Decisive Crusader victories in Iberia Failure to recreate the County of Edessa Peace treaty between the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and Seljuq Turks Beginning of crusader advances into EgyptTerritorial changes Lisbon
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Syria
Coordinates: 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-SūrīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic) Humat ad-Diyar Guardians of the HomelandCapital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300Official languages ArabicEthnic groupsSyrian Arabs Arameans Kurds Turkomans Assyrians Circassians ArmeniansReligion 87%
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Damascus
Damascus
Damascus
(/dəˈmæskəs/; Arabic: دمشق‎ Dimashq [diˈmaʃq], Syrian: [dˈməʃe(ː)ʔ]) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is likely also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo
Aleppo
due to the battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria
Syria
as ash-Sham (Arabic: الشام‎ ash-Shām) and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine
Jasmine
(Arabic: مدينة الياسمين‎ Madīnat al-Yāsmīn). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world,[4] Damascus
Damascus
is a major cultural centre of the Levant
Levant
and the Arab world
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Damask Steel
Damascus steel was a type of steel used for manufacturing sword blades in the Near East made with wootz steel.[1] These swords are characterized by distinctive patterns of banding and mottling reminiscent of flowing water. Such blades were reputed to be tough, resistant to shattering, and capable of being honed to a sharp, resilient edge.[2] The steel is named after Damascus, the capital city of Syria. It may either refer to swords made or sold in Damascus directly, or it may just refer to the aspect of the typical patterns, by comparison with Damask fabrics (which are themselves named after Damascus).[3][4] The original method of producing Damascus steel is not known. Modern attempts to duplicate the metal have not been entirely successful due to differences in raw materials and manufacturing techniques
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Damask
Damask
Damask
(/ˈdæməsk/; Arabic: دمشق‎) is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. Damasks are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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King Henry VIII
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic
Catholic
theological teachings.[2] Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[1] Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(6 million), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(9 million), Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(6 million), and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(31 million)
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Kabul Province
Kābul (Pashto: کابل‎, translit. Kābəl, Persian: کابل‎, translit. Kābol), situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. The capital of the province is Kabul
Kabul
city, which is also Afghanistan's capital
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Afghanistan
Coordinates: 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65Islamic Republic of Afghanistanد افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت‬ (Pashto) Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان‬ (Dari) Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh AfġānestānFlagCoat of armsMotto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله‬ "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no God but Allah; Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of Allah. (Shahada)Anthem: Millī Surūd ملي سرود‬ (English: "National Anthem")Capital and larg
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