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Rosa Damascena
Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the Damask rose, or sometimes as the rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata. Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose. The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for Rose oil">rose oil (either "rose otto" or "rose absolute") used in perfumery and to make Rose water">rose water and "rose concrete". The flower petals are also edible
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Taxonomy (biology)
In biology, taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species
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England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries
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Robert I, Count Of Dreux
Robert I of Dreux, nicknamed the Great (c. 1123 – 11 October 1188), was the fifth son of Louis VI of France and Adélaide de Maurienne. Through his mother he was related to the Carolingians and to the Marquess William V of Montferrat. In 1137 he received the County of Dreux as an appanage from his father. He held this title until 1184 when he granted it to his son Robert II. In 1139 he married Agnes de Garlande. In 1145, he married Hawise of Salisbury. By his third marriage to Agnes de Baudemont in 1152, he received the County of Braine-sur-Vesle, and the lordships of Fère-en-Tardenois, Pontarcy, Nesle, Longueville, Quincy-en-Tardenois, Savigny, and Baudemont. Robert I participated in the Second Crusade and was at the Siege of Damascus in 1148
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Syria
Syria (Arabic: سوريا‎, romanizedSūriyā), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية‎, romanizedal-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea"> Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Kurds in Syria">Kurds, Turkemens, Assyrians, Armenians in Syria">Armenians, Circassians in Syria">Circassians, Mandeans and Greeks in Syria">Greeks
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Damascus
Damascus (/dəˈmæskəs/; Arabic: دمشقDimashq [diˈmaʃq], Syrian: [dˈməʃe(ː)ʔ]) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is likely also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the Aleppo (2012–2016)">battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham (Arabic: الشامash-Shām) and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine (Arabic: مدينة الياسمينMadīnat al-Yāsmīn). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural centre of the Levant and the Arab world
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Damask Steel
Damascus steel was a type of steel used for manufacturing sword blades in the Near East made with wootz steel. These swords are characterized by distinctive patterns of banding and mottling reminiscent of flowing water. Such blades were reputed to be tough, resistant to shattering, and capable of being honed to a sharp, resilient edge. The steel is named after Damascus, the capital city of Syria. It may either refer to swords made or sold in Damascus directly, or it may just refer to the aspect of the typical patterns, by comparison with Damask fabrics (which are themselves named after Damascus). The original method of producing Damascus steel is not known. Modern attempts to duplicate the metal have not been entirely successful due to differences in raw materials and manufacturing techniques
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Damask
Damask (/ˈdæməsk/; Arabic: دمشق‎) is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. Damasks are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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King Henry VIII
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting Excommunication ( Catholic Church)">excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings. Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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Central Asia
Central Asia is a region which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians, Chorasmians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae
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Kabul Province
Kābul (Pashto: کابل‎, translit. Kābəl, Persian: کابل‎, translit. Kābol), situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. The capital of the province is Kabul city, which is also Afghanistan's capital
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