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Roof
A ROOF is part of a building envelope . It is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather , notably rain or snow , but also heat , wind and sunlight . The word also denotes the framing or structure which supports that covering. The characteristics of a roof are dependent upon the purpose of the building that it covers, the available roofing materials and the local traditions of construction and wider concepts of architectural design and practice and may also be governed by local or national legislation . In most countries a roof protects primarily against rain . A verandah may be roofed with material that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements. The roof of a garden conservatory protects plants from cold, wind, and rain, but admits light
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Date Palm
PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA, commonly known as DATE or DATE PALM, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae
Arecaceae
, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around Iraq
Iraq
. The species is widely cultivated and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) long, with spines on the petiole , and pinnate , with about 150 leaflets. The leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft)
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Neot Semadar
NEOT SMADAR (Hebrew : נְאוֹת סְמָדַר‎) is a kibbutz in southern Israel . Located in the Arabah , it falls under the jurisdiction of Hevel Eilot Regional Council . In 2015 it had a population of 210. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economy * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYNeot Smadar is located in the southern Negev about 70 km. north of Eilat . The kibbutz was established in 1989, on the grounds of an abandoned kibbutz, Shizafon. Neot Smadar is as an organic community featuring architecturally unique buildings with passive cooling towers. The Art Center houses 14 workshops for Stained glass , ceramics , textile , wood and metals . The building is insulated with mud bricks, with "air conditioning" supplied by a desert cooling tower. ECONOMY Neot Smadar arts center The economy is based on agriculture, with 500 dunams of organically cultivated vineyards, deciduous trees, olives, date plantations and an herb garden
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Shack
A SHACK is a type of small, often primitive shelter or dwelling. Like huts , shacks are constructed by hand using available materials; however, whereas huts are usually rural and made of natural materials (mud, rocks, sticks, etc.) shacks are generally composed of scavenged man-made materials like abandoned construction debris, repurposed consumer waste and other useful discarded objects that can be quickly acquired at little or no cost and fashioned into a small dwelling . In areas of high population density and high poverty, shacks are often the most prevalent form of housing; it is possible that up to a billion people worldwide live in shacks. Fire is a significant hazard in tight-knit shack settlements. Settlements composed mostly or entirely of shacks are known as slums or shanty towns
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Legislation
LEGISLATION (or "statutory law ") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted ") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it. Before an item of legislation becomes law it may be known as a bill , and may be broadly referred to as "legislation", while it remains under consideration to distinguish it from other business. Legislation can have many purposes: to regulate, to authorize, to outlaw, to provide (funds), to sanction, to grant, to declare or to restrict. It may be contrasted with a non-legislative act which is adopted by an executive or administrative body under the authority of a legislative act or for implementing a legislative act. Under the Westminster system
Westminster system
, an item of primary legislation is known as an Act of Parliament after enactment
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Sunlight
SUNLIGHT is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun
Sun
, in particular infrared , visible , and ultraviolet light. On Earth
Earth
, sunlight is filtered through Earth\'s atmosphere , and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon . When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds , it is experienced as SUNSHINE, a combination of bright light and radiant heat . When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects , it is experienced as diffused light. The World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
uses the term "sunshine duration " to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun
Sun
of at least 120 watts per square meter . Other sources indicate an "Average over the entire earth" of "164 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day"
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Architectural Design
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN VALUES make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions. However, architects and designers are not always influenced by the same values and intentions. Value and intentions differ between different architectural movements . It also differs between different schools of architecture and schools of design as well as among individual architects and designers . The differences in values and intentions are directly linked to the pluralism in design outcomes that exist within architecture and design. It is also a big contributing factor as to how an architect or designer operates in his/her relation to clients. Different design values tend to have a considerable history and can be found in numerous design movements. The influence that each design value has had on design movements and individual designers has varied throughout history
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Banana
The BANANA is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa . In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called plantains , in contrast to DESSERT BANANAS. The fruit is variable in size, color and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. Almost all modern edible parthenocarpic (seedless) bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana . The scientific names of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, and Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name Musa sapientum is no longer used
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Straw
STRAW is an agricultural by-product , the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw
Straw
makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley , oats , rice , rye and wheat . It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and basket-making. It is usually gathered and stored in a STRAW BALE, which is a bundle of STRAW tightly bound with twine or wire. Bales may be square, rectangular, or round, depending on the type of baler used. CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 Safety * 3 Research * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links USESCurrent and historic uses of straw include: * Animal feed * Straw
Straw
may be fed as part of the roughage component of the diet to cattle or horses that are on a near maintenance level of energy requirement. It has a low digestible energy and nutrient content (as opposed to hay , which is much more nutritious)
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Coal Tar
COAL TAR is a very thick, dark liquid with a number of medical and industrial uses. As a medication it is used to treat psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). For psoriasis it may be used together with ultraviolet light therapy . It is used by application to the affected area. Coal
Coal
tar is one of the by-products when coal is made into coke and coal gas . Industrial uses include preservation of railway ties and improving the surface of roads. Side effects include skin irritation, sun sensitivity, allergic reactions , and skin discoloration. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby and use during breastfeeding is not typically recommended. The exact mechanism of action is unknown. It is a complex mixture of phenols , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds . It may have antifungal , anti-inflammatory , anti-itch , and antiparasitic properties
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Polyvinyl Chloride
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (/ˌpɒlivaɪnəl ˈklɔəraɪd/ ), also known as poly vinyl or VINYL , commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer , after polyethylene and polypropylene . PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers , the most widely used being phthalates . In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, phonograph records, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber. Pure polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran
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Pre-cast Concrete
PRECAST CONCRETE is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or "form" which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place ("tilt up "). In contrast, standard concrete is poured into site-specific forms and cured on site. PRECAST STONE is distinguished from precast concrete using a fine aggregate in the mixture, so the final product approaches the appearance of naturally occurring rock or stone. Precast (panels) are only used within ranges of exterior and interior walls. Compressed in concrete and stone, creating a solid but manuverable wall or face. By producing precast concrete in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant), the precast concrete is afforded the opportunity to properly cure and be closely monitored by plant employees. Using a precast concrete system offers many potential advantages over onsite casting
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Aluminium
ALUMINIUM or ALUMINUM (see below ) is a chemical element with symbol AL and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group . By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth\'s crust ; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals . The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite . Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for the metal's low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation . Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames
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Architectural Glass
ARCHITECTURAL GLASS is glass that is used as a building material . It is most typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope, including windows in the external walls. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety type , which include reinforced, toughened and laminated glasses. A building in Canterbury, England, which displays its long history in different building styles and glazing of every century from the 16th to the 20th included
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Heat
In thermodynamics , HEAT refers to the energy that is transferred from a warmer substance or body to a cooler one. More generally, heat arises from many microscopic-scale changes to the objects, and can be defined as the amount of transferred energy excluding both macroscopic work and transfer of part of the object itself. Transfer of energy as heat can occur through contact, or through a common wall that is impermeable to matter, between the source and the destination body, as in conduction ; or by radiation between remote bodies; or by way of an intermediate fluid body, as in convective circulation ; or by a combination of these. Heat
Heat
is often contrasted with work : heat involves the stochastic (random) motion of particles (such as atoms or molecules) that are equally distributed among all degrees of freedom , while work is directional, confined to one or more specific degrees of freedom
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") (pre-) 1967 border (Green Line ) Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition ) 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew *
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