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Romanization Of Arabic
The romanization of Arabic
Arabic
writes written and spoken Arabic
Arabic
in the Latin script
Latin script
in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic
Arabic
is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language
Arabic language
works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic
Arabic
script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists
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Glottal Stop
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩. Using IPA, this sound is known as a glottal plosive. As a result of the obstruction of the airflow in the glottis, the glottal vibration either stops or becomes irregular with a low rate and sudden drop in intensity.[1]Contents1 Features 2 Writing 3 Occurrence 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the glottal stop:[citation needed]Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Hans Wehr
Hans Bodo Gerhardt Wehr (German: [hans veːɐ̯]; 5 July 1909, Leipzig – 24 May 1981, Münster)[1] was a German Arabist. A professor at the University of Münster
Münster
from 1957–1974, he published the Arabisches Wörterbuch (1952), which was later published in an English edition as A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, edited by J Milton Cowan. Today, the work is regarded as the standard scholarly dictionary of Arabic for English-speaking students and scholars of the language. For the dictionary Wehr created a transliteration scheme to represent the Arabic alphabet. The latest edition of the dictionary was published in 1995 and is Arabic–German only. References[edit]^ Eisenstein, H. (1981–1982). " Hans Wehr
Hans Wehr
(5. Juli 1909 bis 24. Mai 1981)". Archiv für Orientforschung
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Mohammed
Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: محمد‎; pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] French: Mahomet /məˈhɒmɪt/; Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was the founder of Islam.[2][3] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[3][4][5][6] He is viewed as the final prophet of God
God
in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.[n 3] Muha
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Digraph (orthography)
A digraph or digram (from the Greek: δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined. Digraphs are often used for phonemes that cannot be represented using a single character, like the English sh in ship and fish. In other cases, they may be relics from an earlier period of the language when they had a different pronunciation, or represent a distinction which is made only in certain dialects, like English wh. They may also be used for purely etymological reasons, like rh in English. Digraphs are used in some Romanization
Romanization
schemes, like the zh often used to represent the Russian letter ж
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UNGEGN
The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
(UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and deals with the national and international standardization of geographical names. Every five years they hold the United Nations Conference on the Standardization
Standardization
of Geographical Names.Contents1 History 2 Mandate and tasks 3 Structure3.1 Bureau 3.2 Divisions 3.3 Working Groups4 Conference 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] The question of standardizing geographical names was raised by the United Nations Cartographic Section of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in the late 1940s. After discussions in the 1950s and ECOSOC resolution 715A (XXVII) of 1959, the first meeting of a group of experts was convened in New York City in 1960
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Institut Géographique National
The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière (National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information), previously Institut géographique national
Institut géographique national
(National Geographic Institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940[1] to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories.Contents1 Administrative organisation 2 Missions 3 Products 4 History 5 External links 6 ReferencesAdministrative organisation[edit] The IGN depends on the French Ministry of Equipment, Transport, Town and Country Planning, Tourism and Sea. Its missions are fixed by decrees. State subsidies represent 51% of the budget, and sales 49%. The IGN runs four laboratories to research geographical information acquisition, production, distribution and applications
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American Library Association
The American Library
Library
Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States
United States
that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world,[4] with more than 57,000 members.[5]Contents1 History 2 Membership 3 Governing structure3.1 Activities3.1.1 Divisions 3.1.2 Notable offices 3.1.3 Notable sub-organizations3.2 Affiliates 3.3 National outreach3.3.1 Awards 3.3.2 Conferences 3.3.3 Notable Members4 Political positions4.1 Intellectual freedom 4.2 Privacy4.2.1 1970s 4.2.2 1980s 4.2.3 USA PATRIOT Act4.3 Copyright5 ALA-Accredited Programs in Library
Library
and Information Studies 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey
Melvil Dewey
(Melvil Dui), Fred B
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Library Of Congress
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
(LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States
United States
Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center.[3] The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
claims to be the largest library in the world.[4][5] Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages
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Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
The Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
(German: [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈmɔʁɡənˌlɛndɪʃə ɡəˈzɛlʃaft], German Oriental Society), abbreviated DMG, is a scholarly organization dedicated to Oriental studies, that is, to the study of the languages and cultures of the Near East
Near East
and the Far East, the broader Orient, Asia, Oceania, and Africa. The DMG was established on 2 October 1845 in Leipzig
Leipzig
by leading Oriental scholars from Germany, as well as members of other Orientalist societies such as the Asiatic Societies in Paris
Paris
(the Société Asiatique), London
London
(the Royal Asiatic Society), and Calcutta (the Asiatic Society)
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Arabist
An Arabist
Arabist
is someone normally from outside the Arab World
Arab World
who specialises in the study of the Arabic language
Arabic language
and culture (usually including Arabic literature).Contents1 Origins 2 Arabists and the Reconquista 3 Eclipse and renewal of Spanish Arabists 4 Arabists elsewhere in Europe4.1 Richard Francis Burton 4.2 Lady Hester Stanhope 4.3 Gertrude Bell 4.4 St John Philby 4.5 Hans Wehr5 Arabists in the Middle East 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOrigins[edit] See also: Al Andalus Arabists began in medieval Muslim Spain, which lay on the frontier between the Muslim world
Muslim world
and Christendom. At various times, either a Christian or a Muslim kingdom might be the most hospitable toward scholars
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Encyclopaedia Of Islam
The Encyclopaedia
Encyclopaedia
of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies
Islamic studies
published by Brill. It is considered to be the standard reference work in the field of Islamic studies.[1] The first edition was published in 1913–1938, the second in 1954–2005, and the third was begun in 2007.Contents1 Content 2 Standing 3 Editions3.1 1st edition, EI1 3.2 SEI 3.3 2nd edition, EI2 3.4 3rd edition, EI34 Urdu
Urdu
translation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksContent[edit] According to Brill, the EI includes "articles on distinguished Muslims of every age and land, on tribes and dynasties, on the crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography, flora and fauna of the various countries and on the history, topography and monuments of the major towns and cities
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BSI Group
BSI Group, also known as the British Standards
British Standards
Institution (or BSI), is the national standards body of the United Kingdom
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ArabTeX
ArabTeX is a free software package providing support for the Arabic and Hebrew alphabets to TeX and LaTeX. Written by Klaus Lagally, it can take romanized ASCII or native script input to produce quality ligatures for Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, Sindhi, Shahmukhi Punjabi, Maghribi, Uyghur, Kashmiri, Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, Ladino and Yiddish. ArabTeX characters are placed within a TeX/LaTeX document using the command RL … or the environment begin RLtext … end RLtext
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Diacritic
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). Diacritic
Diacritic
is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script
Latin script
is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added
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