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Roman Theater (Amman)
Amman
Amman
's ROMAN THEATRE is a 6,000-seat, 2nd-century Roman theatre . A famous landmark in the Jordanian capital, it dates back to the Roman period when the city was known as Philadelphia. The theatre and the nearby Odeon are flanking the new Hashemite Plaza from the south and the east respectively, while the Roman Nymphaeum is just a short stroll away in south-westerly direction. HISTORYThe theatre was built during the reign of Antonius Pius (138-161 CE). The large and steeply raked structure could seat about 6,000 people: built into the hillside, it was oriented north to keep the sun off the spectators. It was divided into three horizontal sections (diazomata). Side entrances (paradoi) existed at ground level, one leading to the orchestra and the other to the stage. Rooms behind these entrances now house the Jordan
Jordan
Museum of Popular Tradition on the one side, and the Jordan
Jordan
Folklore Museum on the other side. The highest section of seats in a theatre, known in British English as "the gods ", even though far from the stage, offer here excellent sightlines, while the actors can be clearly heard, owing to the steepness of the cavea
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Amman
AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic : عمّان‎‎ _ʻammān_ pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan , and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 sq mi). Today, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal . Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji . Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city
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Roman Theatre (structure)
ROMAN THEATRES derive from and are part of the overall evolution of earlier Greek theatres. Indeed, much of the architectural influence on the Romans came from the Greeks, and theatre structural design was no different from other buildings. However, Roman theatres have specific differences, such as generally being built upon their own foundations instead of earthen works or a hillside and being completely enclosed on all sides. CONTENTS * 1 Buildings * 2 List of Roman Theatres * 3 See also * 4 References BUILDINGS Interior view of the Roman theatre of Bosra , Syria: 1) Scaenae frons 2) Porticus post scaenam 3) Pulpitum
Pulpitum
4) Proscaenium 5) Orchestra 6) Cavea 7) Aditus maximus 8) Vomitorium . Roman theatres were built in all areas of the empire from Spain to the Middle East. Because of the Romans' ability to influence local architecture, we see numerous theatres around the world with uniquely Roman attributes. There exist similarities between the theatres and amphitheatres of ancient Rome/Italy. They were constructed out of the same material, Roman concrete , and provided a place for the public to go and see numerous events throughout the Empire. However, they are two entirely different structures, with specific layouts that lend to the different events they held. Amphitheatres did not need superior acoustics, unlike those provided by the structure of a Roman theatre
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe . It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece , and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world . Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called _res publica _, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France
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Odeon Theater (Amman)
The ODEON is a small 500-seat theatre in Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
. Not to be confused with the large Roman Theatre that stands right next to it, on the southern side of the Hashemite Plaza , while the Odeon stands on the east side of the Plaza. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Modern use * 4 References DESCRIPTIONArchaeologists have speculated that the Odeon was most likely closed by a temporary wooden roof that shielded the audience from the weather. HISTORYThe building is a Roman odeon , built in the 2nd century CE, at the same time as the Roman Theatre next to it. The Odeon was recently restored along with the nearby Nymphaeum fountain. MODERN USEThe Odeon is used nowadays for concerts, the most popular being the annually held Al-Balad Music Festival . REFERENCES * ^ A B C D "Odeon theater Overview". Retrieved 2015-08-24. * ^ A B C D "Tourism in Amman". Retrieved 2015-08-24. * ^ A B C D "Odeon theater Overview". Retrieved 2015-08-24. Coordinates : 31°57′06.09″N 35°56′21.50″E / 31.9516917°N 35.9393056°E / 31.9516917; 35.9393056 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Odeon_theater_(Amman) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Hashemite Plaza
THE HASHEMITE PLAZA is a plaza in Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
that spans over an area of 50,000 square metres. It was renewed in 2014 and is named after the Jordanian royal family, the Hashemites . The Hashemite Plaza includes open spaces, fountains, gardens, parking lots and cafes. It is equipped with a centre that hosts cultural activities like the Amman
Amman
Book Festival. The plaza is flanked by two of the most popular Roman ruins of Amman, the Roman theatre and the Odeon , while the Nymphaeum is just a short distance away. The Citadel Hill, which towers over the Plaza, offers good views of it. REFERENCES * ^ "GAM Hashemite Plaza Upgrading Due Next Summer". Retrieved 2015-08-24. * ^ "Celebration to mark opening of revamped Hashemite Square". Retrieved 2015-08-24. This article about a building or structure in Jordan
Jordan
is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Hashemite_Plaza additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Nymphaeum (Amman)
The NYMPHAEUM is a partially preserved Roman public fountain in Amman , Jordan
Jordan
. It is located a short distance from the Hashemite Plaza
Hashemite Plaza
, the Roman Theater and the Odeon , at the crossing of Ibn al-Atheer and Quraysh streets in al-Balad . Such fountains were very popular in Roman cities, and Philadelphia, as Amman
Amman
was known by ancient Greeks and Romans, was no exception. This nymphaeum is believed to have contained a 600 square meters pool which was three meters deep and was continuously refilled with water. HISTORYThe nymphaeum was built in the 2nd century CE, during the same period as the nearby theatre and odeon. RESTORATIONIn September 2015, archaeology students from the University of Jordan , Petra University and the Hashemite University as well as professional technicians, funded by the U.S embassy, started restoring the site. Their work consists in cleaning the structure stone by stone, and in replacing portions of stone lost due to erosion, cracking and flaking. REFERENCES * ^ " Nymphaeum
Nymphaeum
Overview". Retrieved 2015-08-24. * ^ "Tourism in Amman". Retrieved 2015-08-24. * ^ "Archaeologists on a mission to breathe life into long-abandoned downtown site". 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2016-07-31
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Antonius Pius
ANTONINUS PIUS (Latin : Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 86 – 7 March 161), also known as ANTONINUS, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii . He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian , or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. He died of illness in 161 and was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors. CONTENTS* 1 Early life * 1.1 Childhood and family * 1.2 Marriage and children * 1.3 Favor with Hadrian * 2 Emperor * 2.1 A non-military reign * 2.2 Economy and administration * 2.3 Legal reforms * 2.4 Death * 3 Diplomatic mission to China * 4 Historiography * 4.1 In later scholarship * 5 Descendants * 6 Nerva–Antonine family tree * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY LIFECHILDHOOD AND FAMILYHe was born as the only child of Titus Aurelius Fulvus , consul in 89 whose family came from Nemausus (modern Nîmes )
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Jordan Folklore Museum
JORDAN FOLKLORE MUSEUM is a museum in Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
. It is located next to the Roman amphitheater , it was established in 1971. The museum showcases a collection of Jordanian and Palestinian heritage like; costumes, musical instrument and handicrafts. Along with mosaics. REFERENCES * ^ "Welcome to Jordan
Jordan
Tourism Board > Where to go > Amman
Amman
> Museums". In.visitjordan.com. Retrieved 2015-10-04. * ^ " Jordan
Jordan
Folklore Museum". Travelojordan.com. Retrieved 2015-10-04. This article about a building or structure in Jordan
Jordan
is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jordan_Folklore_Museum additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom . Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective _wee_ is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland , and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas _little_ is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the _Oxford Guide to World English_, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British ' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity". When distinguished from American English , the term "British English" is sometimes used broadly as a synonym for the various varieties of English spoken in some member states of the Commonwealth of Nations
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The Gods (theatrical)
THE GODS (UK English), or sometimes PARADISE, is a theatrical term, referring to the highest areas of a theatre such as the upper balconies. These are generally the cheapest seats. One reason for naming the cheapest seats "the gods" is because the theatres have beautifully painted ceilings, often mythological themes, so the cheap seats are up near the gods. Another is that those seated in "the gods" look down upon both the players and the occupants of more expensive seats, like the Olympian Gods looking down from Mount Olympus upon the lives of mortal men and women. There are references to the "gods" in many plays and films. Among them is the famous French film, Les Enfants du Paradis (or Children of Paradise in its US release), which is described as "set in the teeming theatre district of 1840s Paris (the "boulevard du crime "), the paradise of the film's title is a reference to "the gods", the highest, cheapest seats in the theatre, occupied by the poorest of the poor. As the well-known 1930s-and-later screenwriter Jacques Prévert said when asked about the meaning of the title, "it refers to the actors (...) and the audiences too, the good-natured, working-class audience". SEE ALSO * Peanut gallery * Bleachers * Nosebleed seats REFERENCES * ^ Les Enfants du Paradis, Girish Shambu , in sensesofcinema.com, January 2001 This theatre-related article is a stub
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Cavea
In Roman times the CAVEA (Latin for "enclosure") referred to the seating sections of Roman theatres and amphitheatres . The cavea is traditionally organised in three horizontal sections, corresponding to the social class of the spectators: * The ima cavea is the lowest part of the cavea and the one directly surrounding the orchestra. It was usually preserved for the upper echelons of society. * The media cavea directly follows the ima cavea and was open to the general public, though mostly reserved for men. * The summa cavea is the highest section and was usually open to women and children.Similarly the front row was called the prima cavea and the last row was called the cavea ultima. The cavea was further divided vertically into cunei. A cuneus (Latin for "wedge"; plural, cunei) was a wedge-shaped division separated by the scalae or stairways. REFERENCES * ^ Roman Architecture This Ancient Rome -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Cavea
Cavea
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Amman Marathon
AMMAN INTERNATIONAL MARATHON is an annually held marathon in Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
. Organized by the NGO Run Jordan
Jordan
which also organizes several other marathons across the kingdom, it was inaugurated in 2009 by King Abdullah . Around 20,000 people participate in the marathon which ranges from routes that are 42, 21 and 10 kilometers long, there is another event dedicated to kids. REFERENCES * ^ http://www.runjordan.com/ * ^ Brune, Adrian (February 25, 2017). "Racing to Rebuild the Middle East". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved February 26, 2017. – via Foreign Affairs (subscription required) * ^ http://www.ammancity.gov.jo/en/resource/snews.asp?id=C3165333-7CB2-4C3B-8220-BE4A662683CF * ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/news/sports/samsung-amman-marathon-runners-take-friday Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amman_ Marathon
Marathon
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Al-Balad Music Festival
AL-BALAD MUSIC FESTIVAL, is an biannually held event in Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
. It takes place in downtown Amman
Amman
in Roman amphitheater and Odeon amphitheater . ABOUTThe festival hosts different Arab bands each time, most notably El Morabba3 . REFERENCES * ^ "Support - Al Balad Music Festival". albaladmusicfestival.org. * ^ "Souad Massi brings the Al Balad Music Festival to a resounding close!". uta.com.jo. * ^ "Al Balad Music Festival brings budding, seasoned Arab performers to Jordan". jordantimes.com. 23 July 2015. * ^ "Tarabband presents Arab music from Sweden, gives voice to victims of war". jordantimes.com. 31 July 2015. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al-Balad_Music_Festival additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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