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Roman Rite
The ROMAN RITE (_Ritus Romanus_) is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church and is one of the Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church . The Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass , Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI . The 2007 motu proprio _ Summorum Pontificum _ specifies the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may continue to use the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite , a revision of the Tridentine form promulgated in the in the 1962 Roman Missal . The Roman Rite gradually became the predominant rite used by the Western Church . The Latin rites were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches , though their number is greatly reduced today. In the aftermath of the Council of Trent , in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries (see Tridentine Mass and Roman Missal ). Many local rites that remained legitimate even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century
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Mass (Catholic Church)
The MASS or EUCHARISTIC CELEBRATION is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated. The church describes the mass as "the source and summit of the Christian life". The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ . The Catholic Church practises closed communion , with only baptised members in a state of grace ordinarily permitted to receive the Eucharist. Many of the Catholic Church's other sacraments are celebrated in the framework of the Eucharist. The term "Mass" is generally used within the Latin Church 's celebrations of the Eucharist, while the Eastern Orthodox Church , Oriental Orthodox Church , and the various Eastern Catholic Churches use terms such as " Divine Liturgy ", "Holy Qurbana ", and "Badarak", in accordance with each one's tradition. The term "Mass" is derived from the concluding words of the Roman Rite mass in Latin: " Ite, missa est " ("Go; it is the dismissal"). The Late Latin word missa substantively corresponds to the classical Latin word missio. In antiquity, missa simply meant "dismissal". In Christian usage, however, it gradually took on a deeper meaning. The word "dismissal" has come to imply a mission
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Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome , known as the Pope , the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City , enclaved within Rome , Italy . The Catholic Church teaches that it is the one true church founded by Jesus Christ , that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles , and that the Pope is the successor to Saint Peter ; the Prince of the Apostles . The Catholic Church maintains that the doctrine on faith and morals that it declares as definitive is infallible . The Latin Church and Eastern Catholic Churches , as well as institutes such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders , reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the Church. The Catholic Church is notable within Western Christianity for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments . The principal sacrament, the Eucharist , is celebrated liturgically in the Mass
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Roman Missal
The ROMAN MISSAL (Latin : _Missale Romanum_) is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Situation before the Council of Trent * 1.2 From the Council of Trent to the Second Vatican Council * 1.3 Revision of the Missal following the Second Vatican Council * 1.4 More recent changes * 1.5 Continued use of earlier editions * 2 Official English translations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links * 6.1 Online texts of editions of the Roman Missal * 6.1.1 Full texts of the _Missale Romanum_ * 6.1.2 Texts of Roman Rite missals earlier than the 1570 Roman Missal * 6.1.3 The 2011 English translation * 6.1.4 Partial texts HISTORYSITUATION BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF TRENTBefore the high Middle Ages , several books were used at Mass: a Sacramentary with the prayers , one or more books for the Scriptural readings, and one or more books for the antiphons and other chants. Gradually, manuscripts came into being that incorporated parts of more than one of these books, leading finally to versions that were complete in themselves. Such a book was referred to as a _Missale Plenum_ (English: "Full Missal")
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Chalice
A CHALICE (from Latin _calix_, mug, borrowed from Greek _kalyx_, shell, husk) is a goblet or footed cup intended to hold a drink. In religious practice, a chalice is often used for drinking during a ceremony or may carry a certain symbolic meaning. CONTENTS* 1 Religious use * 1.1 Christian * 1.1.1 The Holy Chalice * 1.1.2 Holy Grail * 1.2 Unitarian Universalism * 1.3 Wicca * 1.4 Neo-Paganism * 1.5 Rastafarian * 2 Poisoned chalice * 3 Heraldry * 4 Gallery * 5 Other usage * 5.1 Québec * 5.2 Czech Republic * 5.3 The Balkans * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 External links RELIGIOUS USECHRISTIAN Fresco of a female figure holding a chalice at an early Christian Agape feast . Catacomb of Saints Marcellinus and Peter , Via Labicana , Rome. Chalice with Saints and Scenes from the Life of Christ Silver chalice in the museum of the Romanian Orthodox Archbishopy of the Vad, Feleac, and Cluj The ancient Roman _calix_ was a drinking vessel consisting of a bowl fixed atop a stand, and was in common use at banquets
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Purificator
An ALTAR CLOTH is used by various religious groups to cover an altar . It may be used as a sign of respect towards the holiness of the altar, as in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Because many altars are made of wood and are often ornate and unique, cloth may then be used to protect the altar surface. In other cases, the cloth serves to beautify a rather mundane construction underneath. CONTENTS* 1 Christian
Christian
altar cloths * 1.1 Western Churches * 1.1.1 Chalice cloths * 1.1.2 Frontals * 1.1.3 Variants * 1.2 Eastern Churches * 2 Judaism * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CHRISTIAN ALTAR CLOTHSWESTERN CHURCHES The High Altar
Altar
at St. John the Divine, Kennington , London. Special cloths (not necessarily made of linen ) cover the altar in many Christian
Christian
churches during services and celebrations, and are often left on the altar when it is not in use. At the turn of the 20th century the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
considered only linen or hemp to be acceptable as material for altar cloths, although in earlier centuries silk or cloth of gold or silver were used. The Anglican Communion had similar rules in that period
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Paten
A PATEN, or DISKOS, is a small plate, usually made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic bread which is to be consecrated . It is generally used during the service itself, while the reserved sacrament are stored in the tabernacle in a ciborium . CONTENTS * 1 Western usage * 2 Eastern Christian usage * 2.1 Divine Liturgy * 2.2 Other uses * 2.3 Blessing and handling * 3 Oriental Orthodox usage * 3.1 Coptic rite * 4 See also * 5 References WESTERN USAGE Traditional gold chalice and paten inscribed with IHS . In many Eastern liturgical denominations, the paten is typically either a simple saucer-like plate or a low bowl. A smaller style paten will often have a depression that allows it to securely sit on top of the chalice . In more traditional denominations or parishes , altar servers may also use a small meme, usually attached to a short flag pole, which is placed under the chin the Eucharist of the priest; thus if the host accidentally falls, it would land on the paten rather than the floor. The General Instruction of the Roman Missal lays down rules for patens: "Sacred vessels should be made from precious metal
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Pall (liturgy)
An ALTAR CLOTH is used by various religious groups to cover an altar . It may be used as a sign of respect towards the holiness of the altar, as in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Because many altars are made of wood and are often ornate and unique, cloth may then be used to protect the altar surface. In other cases, the cloth serves to beautify a rather mundane construction underneath. CONTENTS* 1 Christian
Christian
altar cloths * 1.1 Western Churches * 1.1.1 Chalice cloths * 1.1.2 Frontals * 1.1.3 Variants * 1.2 Eastern Churches * 2 Judaism * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CHRISTIAN ALTAR CLOTHSWESTERN CHURCHES The High Altar
Altar
at St. John the Divine, Kennington , London. Special cloths (not necessarily made of linen ) cover the altar in many Christian
Christian
churches during services and celebrations, and are often left on the altar when it is not in use. At the turn of the 20th century the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
considered only linen or hemp to be acceptable as material for altar cloths, although in earlier centuries silk or cloth of gold or silver were used. The Anglican Communion had similar rules in that period
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Crucifix
A CRUCIFIX (from Latin _cruci fixus_ meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross , as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the _corpus_ ( Latin for "body"). The crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians , and one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts . It is especially important in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church , but is also used in the Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Assyrian , and Eastern Catholic Churches , as well as by many Lutheran and Anglican churches. The symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations , which prefer to use a cross without the figure of Jesus (the _corpus_). The crucifix emphasizes Jesus' sacrifice — his death by crucifixion , which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross , rather than any other shape, such as a Tau cross or a Coptic cross . Western crucifixes usually have a three-dimensional _corpus_, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus' body is normally painted on the cross, or in low relief . Strictly speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, but this distinction is not always observed
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Candle
A CANDLE is an ignitable wick embedded in wax or another flammable solid substance such as tallow that provides light , and in some cases, a fragrance . It can also be used to provide heat , or used as a method of keeping time . A candle manufacturer is traditionally known as a chandler . Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candle holders to elaborate chandeliers . For a candle to burn, a heat source (commonly a naked flame) is used to light the candle's wick, which melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel (the wax). Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to ignite and form a constant flame . This flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel; the liquefied fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action ; the liquefied fuel finally vaporizes to burn within the candle's flame. As the mass of solid fuel is melted and consumed, the candle becomes shorter. Portions of the wick that are not emitting vaporized fuel are consumed in the flame. The incineration of the wick limits the exposed length of the wick, thus maintaining a constant burning temperature and rate of fuel consumption. Some wicks require regular trimming with scissors (or a specialized wick trimmer ), usually to about one-quarter inch (~0.7 cm), to promote slower, steady burning, and also to prevent smoking
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Introductory Rites
The MASS or EUCHARISTIC CELEBRATION is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated. The church describes the mass as "the source and summit of the Christian life". The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ . The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
practises closed communion , with only baptised members in a state of grace ordinarily permitted to receive the Eucharist. Many of the Catholic Church's other sacraments are celebrated in the framework of the Eucharist. The term "Mass" is generally used within the Latin Church 's celebrations of the Eucharist, while the Eastern Orthodox Church , Oriental Orthodox Church , and the various Eastern Catholic Churches use terms such as " Divine Liturgy ", "Holy Qurbana ", and "Badarak", in accordance with each one's tradition. The term "Mass" is derived from the concluding words of the Roman Rite mass in Latin: " Ite, missa est
Ite, missa est
" ("Go; it is the dismissal"). The Late Latin word missa substantively corresponds to the classical Latin word missio. In antiquity, missa simply meant "dismissal". In Christian usage, however, it gradually took on a deeper meaning. The word "dismissal" has come to imply a mission
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Penitential Rite
In Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism , the PENITENTIAL RITE, also known as confession that takes place at the start of each Divine Service or Mass . CONTENTS* 1 Usage in Roman Catholicism * 1.1 In the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass * 1.2 Pre-1970 Roman Missal * 2 Usage in Lutheranism * 2.1 Beliefs * 2.2 Formula * 3 References * 4 External links USAGE IN ROMAN CATHOLICISMIN THE ORDINARY FORM OF THE ROMAN RITE MASSIn the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass is the Mass of Paul VI . In the ordinary form, the PENITENTIAL ACT is part of the Introductory Rites. It follows the greeting in the order of Mass. The three formulas of the Penitential Act are: * FORMULA A, usually called the _ Confiteor _ and contains a _mea culpa _: ℣ (ALL): "I confess to almighty God, and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have greatly sinned in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do; through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault
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Kyrie
KYRIE, a transliteration of Greek Κύριε, vocative case of Κύριος ( Kyrios ), is a common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy , also called the KYRIE ELEISON /ˈkiːri.eɪ ᵻˈleɪ.ᵻsɒn/ (Greek : Κύριε, ἐλέησον, translit. Kýrie eléison, lit. 'Lord, have mercy'). CONTENTS * 1 In the New Testament * 2 In Eastern Christianity * 3 In Western Christianity * 3.1 Kyrie
Kyrie
as section of the Mass ordinary * 3.1.1 Text * 3.1.2 Musical settings * 4 Pronunciations * 5 In renewed Roman Catholic liturgy * 6 In various languages * 7 See also * 8 References * 8.1 Citations * 8.2 Sources * 9 External links IN THE NEW TESTAMENTThe prayer, "Kyrie, eleison," "Lord, have mercy" derives from several New Testament verses in particular. In Matthew 15:22, the Canaanite woman cries out to Jesus, "Have mercy on me, O Lord, Son of David." In Matthew 20:30, 31, two unnamed blind men call out to Jesus, "Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David." Finally, in Mark 10:46, Blind Bartimaeus cries out, "Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me." There are other examples too, such as Luke 18:39 and Matthew 9:27, but the phrase "Lord, have mercy" was well-enough established in the Gospel narratives to become the basis for the use of "Kyrie, eleison" as a liturgical prayer
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Gloria In Excelsis Deo
"GLORIA IN EXCELSIS DEO" ( Latin for "Glory to God in the highest") is a Christian
Christian
hymn known also as the GREATER DOXOLOGY (as distinguished from the "Minor Doxology" or Gloria Patri ) and the ANGELIC HYMN. The name is often abbreviated to GLORIA IN EXCELSIS or simply GLORIA. The hymn begins with the words that the angels sang when the birth of Christ was announced to shepherds in Luke 2:14. Other verses were added very early, forming a doxology . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Present-day Greek text * 3 Present-day Latin text * 4 Liturgical use * 4.1 Byzantine Rite * 4.2 Western liturgical rites * 4.2.1 Gloria as section of the Mass ordinary * 5 Associated ceremonial * 5.1 Roman Rite * 5.2 Byzantine Rite * 6 Musical settings * 6.1 Media * 7 Some English translations * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORYIt is an example of the psalmi idiotici ("private psalms", i.e. compositions by individuals in imitation of the biblical Psalter ) that were popular in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Other surviving examples of this lyric poetry are the Te Deum and the Phos Hilaron . In the 4th century it became part of morning prayers, and is still recited in the Byzantine Rite Orthros service
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Collect
The COLLECT (/ˈkɒlɛkt/ _KOL-ekt_ ) is a short general prayer of a particular structure used in Christian liturgy . Collects appear in the liturgies of Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, Orthodox , Anglican
Anglican
, Methodist , and Lutheran
Lutheran
churches, among others (in those of eastern Christianity the Greek term _ synapté_ is often used instead of the Latin
Latin
term _ collecta_, both having the same meaning). CONTENTS * 1 Origin of the term * 2 Structure * 3 Variations * 3.1 Roman Catholicism * 3.2 Anglicanism * 3.3 Lutheranism * 4 See also * 5 References ORIGIN OF THE TERMThe word comes from Latin
Latin
_collēcta_, the term used in Rome in the 5th century and the 10th, although in the Tridentine version of the Roman Missal the more generic term _oratio_ (prayer) was used instead. The Latin
Latin
word _collēcta_ meant the gathering of the people together (from _colligō_, "to gather") and may have been applied to this prayer as said before the procession to the church in which Mass was celebrated. It may also have been used to mean a prayer that collected into one the prayers of the individual members of the congregation
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Liturgy Of The Word
MASS is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity . The term mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, Anglican , as well as some Lutheran churches, Methodist , Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches. Some Protestants employ terms such as Divine Service or service of worship , rather than the word Mass. For the celebration of the Eucharist in Eastern Christianity , including Eastern Catholic Churches , other terms such as Divine Liturgy , Holy Qurbana
Holy Qurbana
, and Badarak are typically used instead. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Mass in the Catholic Church
Mass in the Catholic Church
* 2.1 Introductory rites * 2.2 Liturgy of the Word * 2.3 Liturgy of the Eucharist * 2.4 Communion rite * 2.5 Concluding rite * 3 Mass in Anglicanism * 3.1 Structure of the rite * 3.2 Special Masses * 3.3 Ceremonial * 4 Mass in Lutheranism * 5 Calendrical usage * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ETYMOLOGY Further information: Ite, missa est
Ite, missa est
§ Meaning The English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa
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