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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Aquitanian Language
The Aquitanian language
Aquitanian language
was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees
Pyrenees
in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the
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Rhaetian Language
Rhaetian /ˈriːʃən/ or Rhaetic (Raetic) /ˈriːtɪk/ was a language spoken in the ancient region of Rhaetia
Rhaetia
in the Eastern Alps
Eastern Alps
in pre-Roman and Roman times. It is documented by a limited number of short inscriptions (found through Northern Italy, Southern Germany, Eastern Switzerland, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Western Austria)[3] in two variants of the Etruscan alphabet. The ancient Rhaetic language is not the same as one of the modern Romance languages
Romance languages
of the same Alpine region, known as Rhaeto-Romance, but both are sometimes referred to as "Rhaetian".Contents1 Classification 2 History 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksClassification[edit] Based on its handful of surviving inscriptions, whether Rhaetic was an Indo-European language
Indo-European language
or not continues to be argued
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Gallaecian Language
Northwestern Hispano-Celtic or Gallaecian is an extinct Celtic language, and was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages.[1] It was spoken at the beginning of the 1st millennium in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
that became the Roman province of Gallaecia, and is now divided between the modern regions of Galicia, western Asturias, and the Province of León, in Spain, and in Norte Region, Portugal.[2][3][4][5]Contents1 Overview 2 Characteristics 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyOverview[edit] As with the Illyrian and Ligurian languages, the surviving corpus of Gallaecian is composed of isolated words and short sentences contained in local Latin inscriptions or glossed by classical authors, together with a number of names – anthroponyms, ethnonyms, theonyms, toponyms – contained in inscriptions, or surviving as the names of places, rivers or mountains
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Celtiberian Language
Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians
Celtiberians
in an area of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
lying between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar
Júcar
and Turia rivers and the Ebro
Ebro
river. This language is directly attested in nearly 200 inscriptions dated to the 2nd century BC and the 1st century BC, mainly in Celtiberian script, a direct adaptation of the northeastern Iberian script, but also in Latin alphabet
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Lusitanian Language
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language. There has been support for either a connection with the ancient Italic languages[1][2] or Celtic languages.[3][4] It is known from only five sizeable inscriptions, dated from circa 1 CE, and numerous names of places (toponyms) and of gods (theonyms)
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Illyrian Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Berber Languages
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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Syriac Language
Syriac /ˈsɪri.æk/ (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Leššānā Suryāyā), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac,[4][5][6] is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that is the minority language of indigenous ethnic Assyrians/Syriacs in south eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northeastern Syria
Syria
and North western Iran
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Aramaic Language
Aramaic[2] (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic: آرامية‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[3] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant
Levant
and the northern Euphrates
Euphrates
valley
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Hebrew Language
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Sicel Language
The Sicels
Sicels
(Latin: Siculi; Ancient Greek: Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily
Sicily
during the Iron Age. Their neighbours to the west were the Sicani. The Sicels
Sicels
gave Sicily the name it has held since antiquity, but they rapidly fused into the culture of Magna Graecia.Contents1 History 2 Language 3 Mythology 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Archaeological excavation has shown some Mycenean influence on Bronze Age Sicily
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Nuragic Language
Paleo-Sardinian, also known as Proto-Sardinian or Nuragic, is an extinct language (or perhaps set of languages) spoken in Sardinia
Sardinia
(and possibly Corsica) during the Bronze Age, which is thought to have left traces in the onomastics as well as toponyms of the island and in the modern Sardinian language
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Venetic Language
Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language, usually classified into the Italic subgroup, that was spoken by the Veneti people in ancient times in the North East of Italy
Italy
(Veneto) and part of modern Slovenia, between the Po River
Po River
delta and the southern fringe of the Alps.[3][4][5] The language is attested by over 300 short inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BC. Its speakers are identified with the ancient people called Veneti by the Romans and Enetoi by the Greeks. It became extinct around the 1st century when the local inhabitants were assimilated into the Roman sphere
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Osco-Umbrian Languages
The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellian or Sabellic languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy
Italy
before Latin
Latin
replaced them, as the power of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
expanded. The languages are known almost exclusively from inscriptions, principally of Oscan and Umbrian, but there are also some Osco-Umbrian loanwords in Latin.Contents1 Languages 2 Past usage 3 Differences from Latin 4 References 5 External linksLanguages[edit] Umbrian, Volscian, Sabine, South Picene, Marsian, Paelignian, Hernican, Marrucinian, Oscan and Pre-Samnite have been attested. Aequian and Vestinian may also have been part of the group. They have traditionally been ascribed to either an Oscan group or an Umbrian group. However, they are all poorly attested, and such a division is not supported by the evidence
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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