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Roman Invasion Of Britain
The ROMAN CONQUEST OF BRITAIN was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius , whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
(Latin : Britannia). Great Britain
Great Britain
had already frequently been the target of invasions, planned and actual, by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In common with other regions on the edge of the empire, Britain had enjoyed diplomatic and trading links with the Romans in the century since Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
's expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, and Roman economic and cultural influence was a significant part of the British late pre-Roman Iron Age , especially in the south
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Battle Of The Medway
The BATTLE OF THE MEDWAY took place in 43 AD, probably on the River Medway in the lands of the Iron Age tribe of the Cantiaci , now the English county of Kent . Other locations for the battle have been suggested but are less likely. This was an early battle in the Claudian invasion of Britain , led by Aulus Plautius . CONTENTS * 1 Build-up * 2 Chronology * 3 Location * 4 See also * 5 Notes BUILD-UPOn the news of the Roman landing, the British tribes united to fight them under the command of Togodumnus and his brother Caratacus of the Catuvellauni tribe. After losing two initial skirmishes in eastern Kent, the natives gathered on the banks of a river further west to face the invaders. At the same time, the Romans received the surrender of the Dobunni tribe in western Britain. The Dobunni were subjects of the Catuvellauni, and this diplomatic gain was probably a blow to native morale and manpower
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Dubris
DUBRIS, also known as PORTUS DUBRIS and DUBRAE, was a port in Roman Britain on the site of present-day Dover , Kent , England. As the closest point to continental Europe and the site of the estuary of the Dour , the site chosen for Dover was ideal for a cross-channel port. The Dour is now covered over for much of its course through the town. In the Roman era, it grew into an important military, mercantile and cross-channel harbour and - with Rutupiae - one of the two starting points of the road later known as Watling Street . It was fortified and garrisoned initially by the Classis Britannica , and later by troops based in a Saxon Shore Fort
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Battle Of Caer Caradoc
Britons * Ordovices * Silures ? COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Publius Ostorius Scapula Caratacus STRENGTH 21,000 Legio IX Hispana Legio XX Valeria Victrix unknown CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 1,200 unknown * v * t * e Roman invasion and occupation of Britain * Caesar\'s invasions (55–54 BC)* Conquest of Britain (43–76 AD) * Medway * Capture of Camulodunon * Caer Caradoc * Menai * Boudica\'s uprising (60–61 AD) * Camulodunum * Londinium * Watling Street * Scotch Corner (71 AD) * Mons Graupius (83 AD) * Siege of Burnswark (140 AD) * Caledonia (208–210 AD) * Carausian Revolt (286–296 AD) * Usurpation of Magnentius (350–353 AD) * Carausius II (354–358 AD) * Great Conspiracy (367–368 AD) * Usurpation of Magnus Maximus (383–388 AD) * Stilicho\'s Pictish War (398 AD) * Usurpation of Marcus (406–407 AD) * Usurpation of Gratian (407 AD)
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Menai Massacre
The island of Anglesey was conquered and incorporated into the Roman Empire in the first century AD. CONTENTS * 1 First Roman invasion, and sudden evacuation, in 60 * 2 Second invasion and final conquest in 77 * 3 References * 4 See also FIRST ROMAN INVASION, AND SUDDEN EVACUATION, IN 60The Annals of Tacitus , 14.29 to 14:33, give all the known details of this campaign. Tacitus was the son-in-law of Gnaeus Julius Agricola , who was probably present on the campaign. Cassius Dio 's History of Rome (62#1-11) makes a brief mention, as does Tacitus in De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae
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Battle Of Camulodunum
The BATTLE OF CAMULODUNUM, also known as the MASSACRE OF THE NINTH LEGION, (60 or 61 AD) was the major military victory of the Iceni and their allies over an organised Roman army during the revolt of Boudica against the Roman occupation of Britain. A large vexillation of the Legio IX Hispana were destroyed by the rebels. Attempting to relieve the besieged colonia of Camulodunum (Colchester , Essex ), legionaries of the Legio IX Hispana led by Quintus Petillius Cerialis , were attacked by a horde of British tribes, led by the Iceni. Possibly 80% of the Roman foot-soldiers were killed in the battle. The event is recorded by the historian Tacitus in his Annals . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Battle * 3 Aftermath * 4 References BACKGROUNDIn AD 60 or 61, the southeastern area of the island rose in revolt under Boudica, while the governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus , was campaigning in Wales
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Boulogne-sur-Mer
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER (French pronunciation: ( listen ), Latin
Latin
: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Dutch : Bonen), often called BOULOGNE (UK : /buːˈlɔɪn/ ), is a city in Northern France
France
. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais . Boulogne lies on the Côte d\'Opale , a tourist coast on the English Channel
English Channel
, and is the most-visited location in its region after the Lille
Lille
conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais
Calais
, and the 60th largest in France. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring
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Palatine Hill
The PALATINE HILL (/ˈpælətaɪn/ ; Latin : Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Italian : Palatino ) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome
Rome
and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum , looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
on the other. From the time of Augustus
Augustus
Imperial palaces were built here and hence it became the etymological origin of the word palace and its cognates in other languages (Italian palazzo, French palais, German Palast, Czech palác, etc.)
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The Twelve Caesars
DE VITA CAESARUM (Latin ; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as THE TWELVE CAESARS, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus . The work, written in AD 121 during the reign of the emperor Hadrian , was the most popular work of Suetonius , at that time Hadrian's personal secretary, and is the largest among his surviving writings. It was dedicated to a friend, the Praetorian prefect Gaius Septicius Clarus . The Twelve Caesars is considered very significant in antiquity and remains a primary source on Roman history. The book discusses the significant and critical period of the Principate from the end of the Republic to the reign of Domitian ; comparisons are often made with Tacitus whose surviving works document a similar period
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English Channel
The ENGLISH CHANNEL (French : la Manche, "the Sleeve"; German : Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Breton : Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Cornish : Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply THE CHANNEL, is the body of water that separates southern England
England
from northern France
France
, and links the southern part of the North Sea
North Sea
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. It is about 560 km (350 mi) long and varies in width from 240 km (150 mi) at its widest to 33.3 km (20.7 mi) in the Strait of Dover . It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2 (29,000 sq mi)
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Seashell
A SEASHELL or SEA SHELL, also known simply as a SHELL, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are often found washed up on beaches by beachcombers . The shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have rotted out . The term seashell usually refers to the exoskeleton of an invertebrate (an animal without a backbone), and is typically composed of calcium carbonate or chitin . Most shells that are found on beaches are the shells of marine mollusks , partly because these shells are usually made of calcium carbonate, and endure better than shells made of chitin. Apart from mollusk shells , other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles , horseshoe crabs and brachiopods . Marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae create shells which are tubes made of calcium carbonate cemented onto other surfaces
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Capitoline Hill
Coordinates : 41°53′36″N 12°28′59″E / 41.89333°N 12.48306°E / 41.89333; 12.48306 THE CAPITOLINE HILL One of the seven hills of Rome
Rome
LATIN NAME Collis Capitolinus ITALIAN NAME Campidoglio RIONE Campitelli
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Battle Of Watling Street
Decisive Roman victory * End of Boudica's revolt * Roman rule secured BELLIGERENTS Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Iceni
Iceni
,
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Battle Of Scotch Corner
There are two battles known as the Battle of Scotch Corner, one fought in the 1st century, and the other, more often called the Battle of Old Byland , in the 14th century. THE ANCIENT BATTLE OF SCOTCH CORNERThis took place at Stanwick St John in 69 or 71 AD. Venutius , king of the Brigantes , tried to prevent the Romans from taking over their lands. There were a number of large battles over the North of England but the Brigantes were finally defeated at the Battle of Scotch Corner . Whether there was actually a battle seems doubtful: no archeological evidence has been found. As the settlement was a somewhat sprawling collection of houses and cattle pens, it would have been hard to defend, and so it has been suggested that the Brigantes peacefully acquiesced to Roman Ninth legion . REFERENCES * ^ "Rediscovering the lonely site of the Battle of Scotch Corner". Darlington and Stockton Times. Newsquest (North East) Ltd. Retrieved 2 October 2016
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Stilicho's Pictish War
STILICHO\'S PICTISH WAR is a name given to a fight between the forces of the Western Roman Empire led by Stilicho and the Picts in Britain around 398 AD. Little is known about the conflict. The only real source is the panegyrics Eutropium by Claudian which means that while Stilicho was dealing with the Gildonic revolt in Africa, Britain suffered from attacks from the Saxons, Picts and Scots, and ended with "the Saxon conquered, the Ocean calmed, the Pict broken, and Britain secure." Another poem by Claudian refers to a possible expedition to Britain by Stilicho in 396-398. It has been surmised that the Picts attacked the northern frontier of Britain but were defeated. In 400 Stilicho seems to have ordered repairs to Hadrian\'s Wall with money raised during the African campaign. However there is no archeological evidence to support the fact the war ever took place. REFERENCES * ^ Robert Vermaat, "Claudian", Vortigen Studies accessed 30 June 2014 * ^ M
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Magnus Maximus
MAGNUS MAXIMUS (Latin : Flavius Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
Augustus, Welsh : Macsen Wledig) (c. 335—August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388. In 383, as commander of Britain, he usurped the throne against emperor Gratian , and by negotiation with emperor Theodosius I , he was made emperor in Britannia and Gaul
Gaul
the next year while Gratian's brother Valentinian II retained Italy
Italy
, Pannonia
Pannonia
, Hispania
Hispania
, and Africa . In 387, Maximus' ambitions led him to invade Italy, resulting in his defeat by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388. In the view of some historians, his death marked the end of direct imperial presence in Northern Gaul
Gaul
and Britain
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