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Roman Invasion Of Britain
The Roman conquest of Britain
Roman conquest of Britain
was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain
Rom

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Caesar's Invasions Of Britain
In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.[1] The first invasion, in late summer, was unsuccessful, gaining the Romans little else besides a beachhead on the coast of Kent. The second invasion achieved more: the Romans installed a king, Mandubracius, who was friendly to Rome, and they forced the submission of Mandubracius's rival, Cassivellaunus
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Battle Of Scotch Corner
There are two battles known as the Battle of Scotch Corner, one fought in the 1st century, and the other, more often called the Battle of Old Byland, in the 14th century.[1] The ancient battle of Scotch Corner[edit] This took place at Stanwick St John in 69 or 71 AD. Venutius, king of the Brigantes, tried to prevent the Romans from taking over their lands. There were a number of large battles over the North of England but the Brigantes were finally defeated at the Battle of Scotch Corner. Whether there was actually a battle seems doubtful: no archeological evidence has been found. As the settlement was a somewhat sprawling collection of houses and cattle pens, it would have been hard to defend, and so it has been suggested that the Brigantes peacefully acquiesced to Roman Ninth legion.[2] References[edit]^ "Rediscovering the lonely site of the Battle of Scotch Corner". Darlington and Stockton Times. Newsquest (North East) Ltd
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Seashell
A seashell or sea shell, also known simply as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are often found washed up on beaches by beachcombers. The shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have rotted out. The term seashell usually refers to the exoskeleton of an invertebrate (an animal without a backbone), and is typically composed of calcium carbonate or chitin. Most shells that are found on beaches are the shells of marine mollusks, partly because these shells are usually made of calcium carbonate, and endure better than shells made of chitin. Apart from mollusk shells, other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs and brachiopods
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Capitoline Hill
Coordinates: 41°53′36″N 12°28′59″E / 41.89333°N 12.48306°E / 41.89333; 12.48306The Capitoline HillOne of the seven hills of Rome Latin
Latin
name Collis CapitolinusItalian name CampidoglioRione CampitelliBuildings Capitoline Museums
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Palatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (/ˈpælətaɪn/; Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Italian: Palatino [palaˈtiːno]) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome
Rome
and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres[1] above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
on the other
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Boulogne-sur-Mer
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Boulogne-sur-Mer
Boulogne-sur-Mer
(French pronunciation: [bulɔɲ syʁ mɛʁ] ( listen)), often called Boulogne (UK: /bəˈlɔɪn/, Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Picard: Boulonne-su-Mér, Dutch: Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais
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Dubris
Dubris, also known as Portus Dubris
Dubris
and Dubrae, was a port in Roman Britain[1] on the site of present-day Dover, Kent, England. As the closest point to continental Europe and the site of the estuary of the Dour, the site chosen for Dover
Dover
was ideal for a cross-channel port. The Dour is now covered over for much of its course through the town. In the Roman era, it grew into an important military, mercantile and cross-channel harbour and - with Rutupiae
Rutupiae
- one of the two starting points of the road later known as Watling Street
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Battle Of The Medway
The Battle of the Medway took place in 43 AD, probably on the River Medway in the lands of the Iron Age tribe of the Cantiaci, now the English county of Kent. Other locations for the battle have been suggested but are less likely. This was an early battle in the Claudian invasion of Britain, led by Aulus Plautius.Contents1 Build-up 2 Chronology 3 Location 4 See also 5 NotesBuild-up[edit] On the news of the Roman landing, the British tribes united to fight them under the command of Togodumnus and his brother Caratacus of the Catuvellauni tribe. After losing two initial skirmishes in eastern Kent, the natives gathered on the banks of a river further west to face the invaders. At the same time, the Romans received the surrender of the Dobunni tribe in western Britain
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Battle Of Caer Caradoc
BritonsOrdovices Silures?Commanders and leadersPublius Ostorius Scapula CaratacusStrength21,000 Legio IX Hispana Legio XX Valeria Victrix unknownCasualties and losses1,200 unknownv t eRoman invasion and occupation of BritainCaesar's invasions (55–54 BC) Conquest of Britain (43–76 AD)Medway Capture of Camulodunon Caer Caradoc MenaiBoudica's uprising (60–61 AD)Camulodunum Londinium Watling StreetScotch Corner (71 AD) Mons Graupius (83 AD) Siege of Burnswark (140 AD) Caledonia (208–210 AD) Carausian Revolt (286–296 AD) Usurpation of Magnentius (350–353 AD) Carausius II (354–358 AD) Great Conspiracy (367–368 AD) Usurpation of Magnus Maximus (383–388 AD) Stilicho's Pictish War (398 AD) Usurpation of Marcus (406–407 AD) Usurpation of Gratian (407 AD) Usurpation of Constantine III (407–411 AD)The Battle of Caer Caradoc was the final battle in Caratacus's resistance to Roman rule
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Menai Massacre
The island of Anglesey was conquered and incorporated into the Roman Empire in the first century AD.Contents1 First Roman invasion, and sudden evacuation, in 60 2 Second invasion and final conquest in 77 3 References 4 See alsoFirst Roman invasion, and sudden evacuation, in 60[edit] The Annals of Tacitus, 14.29 to 14:33, give all the known details of this campaign. Tacitus was the son-in-law of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who was probably present on the campaign. Cassius Dio's History of Rome (62#1-11) makes a brief mention, as does Tacitus in De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae. Tacitus' account is:"Britain was in the hands of Suetonius Paulinus, who in military knowledge and in popular favour, which allows no one to be without a rival, vied with Corbulo, and aspired to equal the glory of the recovery of Armenia by the subjugation of Rome's enemies. He therefore prepared to attack the island of Mona which had a powerful population and was a refuge for fugitives
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Battle Of Camulodunum
The Battle of Camulodunum, also known as the Massacre of the Ninth Legion, (60 or 61 AD) was the major military victory of the Iceni and their allies over an organised Roman army during the revolt of Boudica against the Roman occupation of Britain. A large vexillation of the Legio IX Hispana were destroyed by the rebels. Attempting to relieve the besieged colonia of Camulodunum (Colchester, Essex), legionaries of the Legio IX Hispana led by Quintus Petillius Cerialis, were attacked by a horde of British tribes, led by the Iceni. Possibly 80% of the Roman foot-soldiers were killed in the battle. The event is recorded by the historian Tacitus in his Annals.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] In AD 60 or 61, the southeastern area of the island rose in revolt under Boudica, while the governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was campaigning in Wales
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Battle Of Watling Street
Decisive Roman victoryEnd of Boudica's revolt Roman rule securedBelligerentsRoman Empire Iceni, Trinovantes, and other British peoplesCommanders and leadersGaius Suetonius Paulinus BoudicaStrength10,000 Dio claims 230,000;[1] Plus women, children and non-combatantsCasualties and lossesTacitus claims 400 Tacitus claims 80,000v t eRoman invasion and occupation of BritainCaesar's invasions (55–54 BC) Conquest of Britain (43–76 AD)Medway Capture of Camulodunon Caer Caradoc MenaiBoudica's uprising (60–61 AD)Camulodunum Londinium Watling StreetScotch Corner (71 AD) Mons Graupius (83 AD) Siege of Burnswark (140 AD) Caledonia (208–210 AD) Carausian Revolt (286–296 AD) Usurpation of Magnentius (350–353 AD) Carausius II (354–358 AD) Great Conspiracy (367–368 AD) Usurpation of Magnus Maximus (383–388 AD) Stilicho's Pictish War (398 AD) Usurpation of Marcus (406–407 A
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Battle Of Mons Graupius
The Battle of Mons Graupius
Battle of Mons Graupius
was, according to Tacitus, a Roman military victory in what is now Scotland, taking place in AD 83 or, less probably, 84. The exact location of the battle is a matter of debate. Historians have long questioned some details of Tacitus's account of the fight, suggesting that he exaggerated Roman success.Contents1 Context 2 Battle details 3 Criticisms of Tacitus's account 4 Aftermath 5 Battle location 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksContext[edit] According to Tacitus, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who was the Roman governor and Tacitus's father-in-law, had sent his fleet ahead to panic the Caledonians, and, with light infantry reinforced with British auxiliaries, reached the site, which he found occupied by the enemy. Even though the Romans were outnumbered in their campaign against the tribes of Britain, they often had difficulties in getting their foes to face them in open battle
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The Twelve Caesars
De vita Caesarum (Latin; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius
Suetonius
Tranquillus. The work, written in AD 121 during the reign of the emperor Hadrian, was the most popular work of Suetonius, at that time Hadrian's personal secretary, and is the largest among his surviving writings. It was dedicated to a friend, the Praetorian prefect
Praetorian prefect
Gaius Septicius Clarus. The Twelve Caesars
The Twelve Caesars
was considered very significant in antiquity and remains a primary source on Roman history
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Siege Of Burnswark
The Siege of Burnswark
Siege of Burnswark
Hill was a battle for control of a Caledonian hillfort fought between the defending Caledonian Selgovae
Selgovae
tribe and Roman legions taking part in Quintus Lollius Urbicus' conquest of the Scottish Lowlands. The siege took place at present day Burnswark in southwestern Scotland
Scotland
near Lockerbie
Lockerbie
and resulted in a Roman victory.Contents1 Context 2 Battle details 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingContext[edit] Little is known about the actual battle from historical texts save from its context which has been well documented
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