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Roman Africans
Roman-Africans are the ancient North African populations that had a Romanized culture and used to speak its own variety of Latin
Latin
as a result.[1] They were mostly concentrated from the Roman conquest in the antiquity to the late Middle-Ages (approximately the 14th century AD) in all the coastal cities of contemporary Tunisia, Tripolitania and East Algeria, an area which was known under Arab rule as Ifriqiya, from the Roman province of Africa. The
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Latin Africa
The United States of Latin Africa (French: Les États-Unis de l'Afrique Latine, Portuguese: Estados Unidos da África Latina, Spanish: Estados Unidos de África Latina) was the proposed union of Romance-language-speaking Central African countries envisioned by Barthélémy Boganda. Boganda first called for it in May 1957.[1] The countries to be part of this large federal entity were Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Chad, French-speaking parts of Cameroon, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea
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Garamantes
The Garamantes
Garamantes
(possibly from the Berber igherman / iɣerman, meaning: "cities" in modern Berber; or possibly from igerramen meaning "saints, holy/sacred people" in modern Berber) were a Berber tribe who developed an advanced civilization in ancient southwestern Libya. They used an elaborate underground irrigation system, and founded prosperous Berber kingdoms or city-states in the Fezzan
Fezzan
area of Libya, in the Sahara
Sahara
desert. They were a local power between 500 BC and 700 AD. There is little textual information about the Garamantes, but their written language was "...a still nearly indecipherable proto-Tifaniq, the script of modern-day Tuaregs."[1] Even the name Garamantes
Garamantes
was a Greek name, which the Romans later adopted
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El Djem
Sultan Cem
Sultan Cem
or Cem Sultan (December 22, 1459 – February 25, 1495) (pronounced [ˈd͡ʒem sulˈtɑːn]; Ottoman Turkish: جم‎; Turkish: Cem Sultan), also referred to as Jem Sultan, or Zizim by the French, was a pretender to the Ottoman throne in the 15th century. Cem was the third son of Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
and younger half-brother of Sultan Bayezid II, and thus a half-uncle of Sultan Selim I
Selim I
of Ottoman Empire. After being defeated by Bayezid, Cem went on exile in Egypt and Europe, under the protection of the Mamluks, the Knights Hospitaller of St
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Roman Army
The Roman army
Roman army
(Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD), and its successor the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. It is thus a term that may span approximately 2,206 years (753 BC to 1453 AD), during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation, equipment and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.[1][2][3]Contents1 Historical overview1.1 Early Roman army
Early Roman army
(c. 500 BC to c. 300 BC) 1.2 Roman army of the mid-Republic
Roman army of the mid-Republic
(c
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Numidia
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s
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Punic Language
The Punic language, also called Carthaginian[2] or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family. It was spoken in the Carthaginian empire in North Africa and several Mediterranean islands by the Punic people throughout classical antiquity, from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD.Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Phonology 4 Examples 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] The Punics
Punics
stayed in contact with Phoenicia
Phoenicia
until the destruction of Carthage by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 146 BC. While Punic was spoken, it underwent many changes under Berber influence
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Berber Languages
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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Roman Limes
Originally the Latin
Latin
noun līmes (English: /ˈlaɪmiːz/;[1] Latin pl. līmitēs) had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference. The term was also commonly used after the 3rd century AD to denote a military district under the command of a dux limitis.[2] Limes
Limes
has sometimes been adopted in modern times for a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
marking the boundaries and provinces of the Roman Empire, but it was not used by the Romans for the imperial frontier, fortified or not
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Getuli
Gaetuli was the romanised name of an ancient Berber tribe inhabiting Getulia. The latter district covered the large desert region south of the Atlas Mountains, bordering the Sahara. Other documents place Gaetulia in pre-Roman times along the Mediterranean coasts of what is now Algeria and Tunisia, and north of the Atlas. The Zenatas are believed to be descendants of the Gaetuli.Contents1 Region 2 Roman Perceptions 3 History 4 Culture4.1 Lifestyle 4.2 Language 4.3 Economy 4.4 Religion5 See also 6 ReferencesRegion[edit]Map locating Getulia south of Mauretania.Getulia was the name given to an ancient district in the Maghreb, which in the usage of Roman writers comprised the nomadic Berber tribes of the southern slopes of the Aures Mountains and Atlas Mountains, as far as the Atlantic, and the oases in the northern part of the Sahara
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Septimus Severus
Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
(/səˈvɪərəs/; Latin: Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus;[4] 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorum—the customary succession of offices—under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax
Pertinax
in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.[5] After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the Roman generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus
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Catholic
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Almohad
The Almohad
Almohad
Caliphate
Caliphate
(British English: /almə(ʊ)ˈhɑːd/, U.S. English: /ɑlməˈhɑd/; Berber languages: ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون (al-Muwaḥḥidūn), "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan[6][7] Berber Muslim
Muslim
movement founded in the 12th century.[8] The Almohad
Almohad
movement was founded by Ibn Tumart
Ibn Tumart
among the Berber Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. Around 1120, the Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel
Tinmel
in the Atlas Mountains.[8] They succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid dynasty
governing Morocco
Morocco
by 1147, when Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi (r
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Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
(Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic
Arabic
or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic
Arabic
dialect spoken in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania. It includes Moroccan Arabic, Algerian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Libyan Arabic, and Hassaniya Arabic. Speakers of Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
call their language Derja, Derija or Darija (Arabic: الدارجة‎; meaning "to rise or advance step by step"[2])
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Byzacena
Byzacena
Byzacena
was a Late Roman province
Roman province
in the central part of Roman North Africa, which is now roughly Tunisia, split off from Africa Proconsularis.Contents1 History 2 Episcopal sees 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources and external linksHistory[edit] At the end of the third century AD, the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Diocletian divided the great Roman province
Roman province
of Africa Proconsularis
Africa Proconsularis
into three smaller provinces: Zeugitana
Zeugitana
in the north, still governed by a proconsul and referred to as Proconsularis, Byzacena
Byzacena
and Tripolitania in the south
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Paul MacKendrick
Paul Lachlan MacKendrick (February 11, 1914, Taunton, MA
Taunton, MA
– February 10, 1998, Madison, WI) was an American classicist, author, and teacher.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Honors 3 Awards 4 Selected books 5 Notes 6 External linksBiography[edit] MacKendrick was born in Taunton, Massachusetts, but most of his productive years had been lived in Madison, Wisconsin. MacKendrick was educated at Harvard University
Harvard University
(1934 B.A., summa cum laude; 1937 M.A.; 1938 Ph.D.) and Balliol College, Oxford, after which he taught at Phillips Academy
Phillips Academy
for some years. Future United States President
President
George H.W. Bush
George H.W. Bush
was a student of MacKendrick's while he taught at Phillips Academy.[2] He joined the U.S
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