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Rolling Stock
The term ROLLING STOCK in rail transport industry originally referred to any vehicles that move on a railway . It has since expanded to include the wheeled vehicles used by businesses on roadways. It usually includes both powered and unpowered vehicles, for example locomotives , railroad cars , coaches , and wagons . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Code names * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWNote that stock in the term is business related and used in a sense of inventory . Rolling stock
Rolling stock
is considered to be a liquid asset , or close to it, since the value of the vehicle can be readily estimated and then shipped to the buyer without much cost or delay. The term contrasts with fixed stock (infrastructure ), which is a collective term for the track , signals , stations , other buildings, electric wires, etc., necessary to operate a railway
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Bar Car
A BAR CAR is a train car that has as its primary purpose the provision and consumption of alcoholic and other beverages . CONTENTS* 1 In the United States * 1.1 Former services * 2 In Canada * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links IN THE UNITED STATESBar cars were common during the heyday of U.S. rail travel prior to World War II. However, since May 2014 there are no bar cars left (not including Amtrak
Amtrak
's full-service dining cars , lounges and café cars). FORMER SERVICESMetro-North Railroad has replaced the 1970s-era cars now used by commuters from Manhattan to Connecticut, with the new M-8 cars rolled out between 2010 and 2015. The M-8 was designed by Cesar Vergara, a train designer from Ridgefield, Connecticut , who also provided a design for a modern bar car. The last bar cars were retired in May 2014
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Mobile Post Office
MOBILE POST OFFICEs deliver mail and other postal services through specially equipped vehicles , such as trucks and trains. CONTENTS* 1 Mobile Post Offices around the world * 1.1 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 1.2 France * 1.3 United States
United States
* 1.4 Canada
Canada
* 1.5 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* 1.6 Israel * 1.7 Pakistan
Pakistan
* 1.8 Other countries * 2 Postage stamps * 3 Popular culture * 4 References and sources * 5 External links MOBILE POST OFFICES AROUND THE WORLDUNITED KINGDOM Main articles: Travelling Post Offices in the United Kingdom and Post Office Sorting Van The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
pioneered the modern use of what it calls the Travelling Post Office (TPO), a railway service that operated for the first time in 1838
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Railway Post Office
In the United States, a RAILWAY POST OFFICE, commonly abbreviated as RPO, was a railroad car that was normally operated in passenger service as a means to sort mail en route, in order to speed delivery. The RPO was staffed by highly trained Railway Mail
Mail
Service postal clerks, and was off-limits to the passengers on the train . In the UK, the equivalent term was Travelling Post Office (TPO). From the middle of the 19th century, many American railroads earned substantial revenues through contracts with the U.S. Post Office Department (USPOD) to carry mail aboard high-speed passenger trains; and the Railway Mail
Mail
Service enforced various standardized designs on RPOs. In fact, a number of companies maintained passenger routes where the financial losses from moving people were more than offset by transporting the mail
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Great Britain
GREAT BRITAIN, also known as BRITAIN, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
off the northwest coast of continental Europe
Europe
. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain
Great Britain
is the largest of the British Isles
British Isles
, the largest European island , and the ninth-largest island in the world . In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java
Java
in Indonesia and Honshu
Honshu
in Japan . The island of Ireland
Ireland
is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands , comprise the British Isles
British Isles
archipelago
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Intermodal Container
An INTERMODAL CONTAINER is a large standardized shipping container , designed and built for intermodal freight transport , meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo. Intermodal containers are primarily used to store and transport materials and products efficiently and securely in the global containerized intermodal freight transport system, but smaller numbers are in regional use as well. These containers are known under a number of names, such as simply CONTAINER, CARGO or FREIGHT container, ISO container, SHIPPING, SEA or OCEAN container, CONTAINER VAN or (CONEX ) BOX, SEA or C CAN. Intermodal containers exist in many types and a number of standardized sizes, but ninety percent of the global container fleet are so-called "dry freight" or "general purpose" containers, durable closed steel boxes, mostly of either twenty or forty foot (6 or 12m) standard length
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Hopper Car
A HOPPER CAR is a type of railroad freight car used to transport loose bulk commodities such as coal , ore , grain , and track ballast . Two main types of hopper car exist: COVERED HOPPER CARS, which are equipped with a roof, and OPEN HOPPER CARS, which do not have a roof. Kambarka Engineering Works hopper car to transport track ballast , 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) gauge American hopper car at Pittsburg, Texas , in 2015 This type of car is distinguished from a gondola car in that it has opening doors on the underside or on the sides to discharge its cargo. The development of the hopper car went along with the development of automated handling of such commodities, with automated loading and unloading facilities
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Well Car
A WELL CAR, also known as a DOUBLE-STACK CAR or STACK CAR (also WELL WAGON), is a type of railroad car specially designed to carry intermodal containers (shipping containers) used in intermodal freight transport . The "well" is a depressed section which sits close to the rails between the wheel trucks of the car, allowing a container to be carried lower than on a traditional flatcar . This makes it possible to carry a stack of two containers per unit on railway lines (double-stack rail transport ) wherever the loading gauge assures sufficient clearance. The top container is secured to the bottom container either by a bulkhead built into the car (e.g., bottom and top containers are the same dimensions of 40 ft.), or through the use of inter-box connectors (IBC). Four IBCs are needed per wellcar
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Stock Car Racing
STOCK CAR RACING is a form of automobile racing found mainly and most prominently in the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
, with Australia
Australia
, New Zealand and Brazil
Brazil
also having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring approximately 0.25 to 2.66 miles (0.4 to 4.3 kilometers). The world's largest governing body for stock car racing is the American NASCAR
NASCAR
, and its Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the premier top level series of professional stock car racing. Top level races typically range between 200 to 600 miles (322 to 966 km) in length
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Ballast Hopper
A HOPPER CAR is a type of railroad freight car used to transport loose bulk commodities such as coal , ore , grain , and track ballast . Two main types of hopper car exist: COVERED HOPPER CARS, which are equipped with a roof, and OPEN HOPPER CARS, which do not have a roof. This type of car is distinguished from a gondola car in that it has opening doors on the underside or on the sides to discharge its cargo. The development of the hopper car went along with the development of automated handling of such commodities, with automated loading and unloading facilities. Covered hopper cars are used for bulk cargo such as grain , sugar , and fertilizer that must be protected from exposure to the weather. Open hopper cars are used for commodities such as coal , which can suffer exposure with less detrimental effect. Hopper cars have been used by railways worldwide whenever automated cargo handling has been desired
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Great Western Railway Telegraphic Codes
GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY TELEGRAPHIC CODES were a commercial telegraph code used to shorten the telegraphic messages sent between the stations and offices of the railway. The codes listed below are taken from the 1939 edition of the Telegraph Message Code book unless stated otherwise. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Wagons * 3 Carriages * 4 Standard phrases * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe Great Western Railway (GWR) pioneered telegraph communication over the 13 miles (21 km) from Paddington to West Drayton on 9 April 1839 using Cooke and Wheatstone equipment. Although this early system fell into disuse after a few years, from 1850 a new contract with the Electric Telegraph Company saw double-needle telegraphs working at most stations on the line; these were replaced by single-needle machines from 1860. Although used primarily as a safety device to regulate the passage of trains, it was also used to pass messages between the staff
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Head End Power Car
A HEAD END POWER CAR is a rail car that supplies head end power (HEP). Since most modern locomotives supply HEP they are mostly used by heritage railways that use older locomotives, or by railroad museums that take their equipment on excursions. Quite a few head end power cars started out as other forms of rolling stock that have been rebuilt with diesel generators and fuel tanks to supply HEP to the passenger equipment. REFERENCES * ^ "Nevada Southern Railway\'s website describing their head end power car". * ^ "Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad\'s description of their car\'s history and conversion". Archived from the original on 2012-10-02. * ^ "Heart of Dixie Railroad Museum\'s equipment roster with a brief description of their HEP car"
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Telegraphese
TELEGRAM STYLE, TELEGRAPH STYLE, TELEGRAPHIC STYLE or TELEGRAPHESE is a clipped way of writing that attempts to abbreviate words and pack as much information into the smallest possible number of words or characters. It originated in the telegraph age when telecommunication consisted only of short messages transmitted by hand over the telegraph wire. The telegraph companies charged for their service by the number of words in a message, with a maximum of 15 characters per word for a plain-language telegram, and 10 per word for one written in code. The style developed to minimize costs but still convey the message clearly and unambiguously. Related but distinct, is the historical practice of using abbreviations and code words to compress the meaning of phrases into a small set of characters for ease of transmission over a telegraph , a device for transmitting electrical impulses used for communications, introduced from 1839 onwards
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SMS Language
SMS
SMS
LANGUAGE, TEXTESE or TEXTING LANGUAGE is the abbreviated language and slang commonly used with mobile phone text messaging, or other Internet
Internet
-based communication such as email and instant messaging . Three features of early mobile phone messaging encouraged users to use abbreviations: (a) Text entry was difficult, requiring multiple key presses on a small keypad to generate each letter; (b) Messages were limited to 160 characters; and (c) it made texting faster. Once it became popular it took on a life of its own and was often used outside of its original context. At its peak, it was the cause of vigorous debate about its potentially detrimental effect on literacy, but with the advent of alphabetic keyboards on smartphones its use, and the controversies surrounding it, have receded and died off
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