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Rolling Stock
The term ROLLING STOCK in rail transport industry originally referred to any vehicles that move on a railway . It has since expanded to include the wheeled vehicles used by businesses on roadways. It usually includes both powered and unpowered vehicles, for example locomotives , railroad cars , coaches , and wagons . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Code names * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWNote that stock in the term is business related and used in a sense of inventory . Rolling stock
Rolling stock
is considered to be a liquid asset , or close to it, since the value of the vehicle can be readily estimated and then shipped to the buyer without much cost or delay. The term contrasts with fixed stock (infrastructure ), which is a collective term for the track , signals , stations , other buildings, electric wires, etc., necessary to operate a railway. * Steam and diesel locomotives * DMU rolling stock * American-style hopper car * Articulated well cars with intermodal containers CODE NAMESIn Great Britain
Great Britain
, types of rolling stock were given code names, often of animals
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Stock Car Racing
STOCK CAR RACING is a form of automobile racing found mainly and most prominently in the United States and Canada , with Australia , New Zealand and Brazil also having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring approximately 0.25 to 2.66 miles (0.4 to 4.3 kilometers). The world's largest governing body for stock car racing is the American NASCAR , and its Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the premier top level series of professional stock car racing. Top level races typically range between 200 to 600 miles (322 to 966 km) in length. Top level stock cars reach speeds in excess of 200 mph (322 km/h) at speedway tracks and on superspeedway tracks such as Daytona International Speedway and Talladega Superspeedway . Contemporary NASCAR-spec top level cars produce maximum power outputs of 860-900 hp from their naturally aspirated V8 engines. In October 2007 American race car driver Russ Wicks set a speed record for stock cars in a 2007-season Dodge Charger built to NASCAR specifications by achieving a maximum speed of 244.9 mph (394.1 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats . For the 2015 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season, power output of the competing cars ranged from 750 to 800 hp (560 to 600 kW)
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Rail Yard
A RAIL YARD, RAILWAY YARD or RAILROAD YARD is the US term for a complex series of railroad tracks for storing, sorting, or loading/unloading, railroad cars and/or locomotives . Railroad yards have many tracks in parallel for keeping rolling stock stored off the mainline, so that they do not obstruct the flow of traffic. Railroad cars are moved around by specially designed yard switchers , a type of locomotive. Cars in a railroad yard may be sorted by numerous categories, including railroad company , loaded or unloaded, destination, car type, or whether they need repairs. Railroad yards are normally built where there is a need to store cars while they are not being loaded or unloaded, or are waiting to be assembled into trains. Large yards may have a tower to control operations. :46 Many railway yards are located at strategic points on a main line . Main line yards are often composed of an UP YARD and a DOWN YARD, linked to the associated railroad direction . There are different types of yards, and different parts within a yard, depending on how they are built
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Rail Transport
RAIL TRANSPORT is a means of transfering of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks . It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport , where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock ) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast , on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons) can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railway company , providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power, usually by diesel engines . Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system . Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport
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Vehicle
A VEHICLE (from Latin : vehiculum ) is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo . Typical vehicles include wagons , bicycles , motor vehicles (motorcycles , trucks , buses ), railed vehicles (trains , trams ), watercraft (ships , boats ), aircraft and spacecraft . Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled , tracked , railed or skied . ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, also internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms and definitions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Most popular vehicles * 3 Locomotion * 3.1 Energy source * 3.2 Motors and engines * 3.3 Converting energy to work * 3.4 Friction
Friction
* 4 Control * 4.1 Steering
Steering
* 4.2 Stopping * 5 Legislation * 5.1 European Union * 5.2 Licensing * 5.3 Registration * 5.4 Mandatory safety equipment * 6 Right-of-way * 7 Safety * 8 See also * 9 References HISTORY This article may REQUIRE CLEANUP to meet's quality standards
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Locomotive
A LOCOMOTIVE or ENGINE is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train . A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. In contrast, some trains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are not normally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multiple units , motor coaches or railcars . The use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains , but rare for freight (see CargoSprinter). Vehicles which provide motive power to haul an unpowered train, but are not generally considered locomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detached from their trains, are known as power cars . Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front
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Railroad Car
A RAILROAD CAR or RAILCAR (American and Canadian English ), RAILWAY WAGON or RAILWAY CARRIAGE (UK and UIC ), also called a TRAIN CAR or TRAIN WAGON, is a vehicle used for the carrying of cargo or passengers on a rail transport system (a railroad/railway). Such cars, when coupled together and hauled by one or more locomotives , form a train . Alternatively, some passenger cars are self-propelled in which case they may be either single railcars or make up multiple units . The term "CAR" is commonly used by itself in American English when a rail context is implicit. Indian English sometimes uses "BOGIE" in the same manner, though the term has other meanings in other variants of English. In American English, "railcar" is a generic term for a railway vehicle; in other countries "railcar " refers specifically to a self-propelled, powered, railway vehicle. Although some cars exist for the railroad's own use – for track maintenance purposes, for example – most carry a revenue-earning load of passengers or freight, and may be classified accordingly as passenger cars or coaches on the one hand or freight cars (or _wagons_) on the other
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Passenger Car (rail)
A PASSENGER CAR (known as a COACH or CARRIAGE in the UK , and also known as a BOGIE in India
India
) is a piece of railway rolling stock that is designed to carry passengers . The term _passenger car_ can also be associated with a sleeping car , baggage , dining , railway post office and prisoner transport cars. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 19th century: First passenger cars and early development * 1.2 1900-1950: Lighter materials, new car types * 1.3 1950-present: High-technology advancements * 1.4 Heavyweight vs
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Goods Wagon
GOODS WAGONS or FREIGHT WAGONS ( North America
North America
: GOODS CARS or FREIGHT CARS) are unpowered railway vehicles that are used for the transportation of cargo . A variety of wagon types are in use to handle different types of goods, but all goods wagons in a regional network typically have standardized couplers and other fittings, such as hoses for air brakes , allowing different wagon types to be assembled into trains . For tracking and identification purposes, goods wagons are generally assigned a unique identifier , typically a UIC wagon number , or in North America, a company reporting mark plus a company specific serial number. CONTENTS* 1 Development * 1.1 German wagon history * 1.2 European wagon history * 2 Types of goods wagon * 2.1 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links DEVELOPMENTAt the beginning of the railway era, the vast majority of goods wagons were four-wheeled vehicles of simple construction. These were almost exclusively small covered wagons , open wagons with side-boards, and flat wagons with or without stakes. Over the course of time, an increasing number of specialised wagons were developed. Special
Special
wagons for specific purposes or wagons with special features were already being introduced around 1850 by private companies. Amongst these were tank wagons and numerous refrigerated vans
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Inventory
INVENTORY ( American English ) or STOCK ( British English ) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goals to have a purpose of resale (or repair). Inventory
Inventory
management is a discipline primarily about specifying the shape and placement of stocked goods. It is required at different locations within a facility or within many locations of a supply network to precede the regular and planned course of production and stock of materials. The concept of inventory, stock or work-in-process has been extended from manufacturing systems to service businesses and projects, by generalizing the definition to be "all work within the process of production- all work that is or has occurred prior to the completion of production." In the context of a manufacturing production system, inventory refers to all work that has occurred - raw materials, partially finished products, finished products prior to sale and departure from the manufacturing system. In the context of services, inventory refers to all work done prior to sale, including partially process information
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Liquid Asset
In business , economics or investment , MARKET LIQUIDITY is a market's ability to purchase or sell an asset without causing drastic change in the asset's price. Equivalently, an asset's market liquidity (or simply "an asset's liquidity") describes the asset's ability to sell quickly without having to reduce its price to a significant degree. Liquidity is about how big the trade-off is between the speed of the sale and the price it can be sold for. In a liquid market, the trade-off is mild: selling quickly will not reduce the price much. In a relatively illiquid market, selling it quickly will require cutting its price by some amount. Money, or cash , is the most liquid asset, because it can be "sold" for goods and services instantly with no loss of value. There is no wait for a suitable buyer of the cash. There is no trade-off between speed and value. It can be used immediately to perform economic actions like buying, selling, or paying debt, meeting immediate wants and needs. If an asset is moderately (or very) liquid, it has moderate (or high) liquidity. In an alternative definition, LIQUIDITY can mean the amount of cash and cash equivalents . If a business has moderate liquidity, it has a moderate amount of very liquid assets. If a business has sufficient liquidity, it has a sufficient amount of very liquid assets and the ability to meet its payment obligations. An act of exchanging a less liquid asset for a more liquid asset is called LIQUIDATION
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Infrastructure
INFRASTRUCTURE refers to the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It typically characterises technical structures such as roads , bridges , tunnels , water supply , sewers , electrical grids , telecommunications , and so forth, and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions ." CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Definitions * 3 Related concepts * 4 Ownership and financing * 5 Uses of the term * 5.1 Engineering and construction * 5.2 Civil defense
Civil defense
and economic development * 5.3 Military
Military
* 5.4 Urban * 5.5 Green infrastructure * 5.6 Marxism
Marxism
* 5.7 Communications * 6 In the developing world * 6.1 Regional differences * 6.2 Sources of funding * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links HISTORY Main article: History of infrastructure According to the _ Online Etymology Dictionary _, the word infrastructure has been used in English since 1887 and in French since 1875, originally meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system"
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Rail Tracks
The TRACK on a railway or railroad , also known as the PERMANENT WAY, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade . It enables trains to move by providing a dependable surface for their wheels to roll upon. For clarity it is often referred to as RAILWAY TRACK (British English and UIC terminology ) or RAILROAD TRACK (predominantly in the United States). Tracks where electric trains or electric trams run are equipped with an electrification system such as an overhead electrical power line or an additional electrified rail . The term _permanent way_ also refers to the track in addition to lineside structures such as fences
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Railway Signal
A SIGNAL is a mechanical or electrical device erected beside a railway line to pass information relating to the state of the line ahead to train/engine drivers (engineers in the US). The driver interprets the signal's indication and acts accordingly. Typically, a signal might inform the driver of the speed at which the train may safely proceed or it may instruct the driver to stop. CONTENTS * 1 Application and positioning of signals * 2 Aspects and indications * 3 Signal forms * 3.1 Mechanical signals * 3.2 Colour light signals * 3.3 Position light signals * 3.4 Colour-position signals * 4 Signal mounting * 4.1 Post mounting * 4.2 Gantry mounting * 4.3 Ground mounting * 4.4 Other * 4.5 Filaments * 4.6 Lamp proving * 5 Control and operation of signals * 6 Cab signalling * 7 Signalling power * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Notes * 11 External links APPLICATION AND POSITIONING OF SIGNALS Main article: Application of railway signals The additional lights on Japanese signal 10 show that the points are set for the left route at the next junction. Originally, signals displayed simple stop/proceed indications. As traffic density increased, this proved to be too limiting and refinements were added. One such refinement was the addition of distant signals on the approach to stop signals. The distant signal gave the driver warning that he was approaching a signal which might require a stop
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Railway Station
A TRAIN STATION, RAILWAY STATION, RAILROAD STATION, or DEPOT (see below ) is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight . It generally consists of at least one track -side platform and a station building (depot) providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms . If a station is on a single-track line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as "STOPS" or, in some parts of the world, as "HALTS" (flag stops). Stations may be at ground level, underground, or elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses , trams or other rapid transit systems
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Steam Locomotive
A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine . These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material – usually coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam in a boiler . The steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main wheels (drivers). Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind. The first steam locomotive, made by Richard Trevithick , first operated on 21 February 1804, three years after the road locomotive he made in 1801. The first practical steam locomotive was created in 1812–13 by John Blenkinsop . Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert 's company Robert Stephenson and Company , the _Locomotion_ No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. Steam locomotives were first developed in Great Britain during the early 19th century and used for railway transport until the middle of the 20th century. From the early 1900s they were gradually superseded by electric and diesel locomotives , with full conversion to electric and diesel power beginning in the late 1930s. The majority of steam locomotives were retired from regular service by the 1980s, though several continue to run on tourist and heritage lines
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