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Rojava

In the diplomatic field, the de facto autonomous region lacks any formal recognition. While there is comprehensive activity of reception of the region's representatives[331][332][333][331][332][333][334] and appreciation[335] with a broad range of countries, only Russia has on occasion openly supported the region's political ambition of federalization of Syria in the international arena,[253][306] while the U.S
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Arab
An Arab (/ˈær.əb/;[54] singular Arabic: عَرَبِيٌّ‎, ISO 233: ‘arabī, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʕarabi], plural Arabic: عَرَبٌ‎, ISO 233: ‘arab, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʕarab] (listen)) may be defined narrowly as a person descended from certain ancient tribes then inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula and surrounding areas or more broadly to include anyone who identifies as Arab, originates from an Arab country, participates in Arab culture and speaks the Arabic language. Arabs primarily live among the Arab states in Western Asia, Northern Africa, the Horn of Africa and Western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros)
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Coordinated Universal Time

Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, and is not adjusted for daylight saving time. It is effectively a successor to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The coordination of time and frequency transmissions around the world began on 1 January 1960. UTC was first officially adopted as CCIR Recommendation 374, Standard-Frequency and Time-Signal Emissions, in 1963, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent) were not adopted until 1967.[1] The system has been adjusted several times, including a brief period where the time-coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time (SAT)" before a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments
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Syrian Pound
The Syrian pound or Syrian lira (Arabic: الليرة السورية‎, romanizedal-līra as-sūriyya; French: livre syrienne; sign: LS or £S; code: SYP) is the currency of Syria and is issued by the Central Bank of Syria. The pound is subdivided into 100 qirsh (قرش, plural: قروش, qurūsh, piastres in English or French), although coins in qirsh are no longer issued. The standard abbreviation for the Syrian pound is SYP. Before 1947, the word qirsh was spelled with the initial Arabic letter غ, after which the word began with ق. Until 1958, banknotes were issued with Arabic on the obverse and French on the reverse. After 1958, English has been used on the reverses, hence the three different names for this currency
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Syrian Turkmen
Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (Arabic: تركمان سوريا‎, Turkish: Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of Turkish origin who mainly trace their roots to Anatolia (i.e. modern Turkey). The majority of Syrian Turkmen are the descendants of migrants who arrived in Syria during Ottoman rule (1516–1918);[2][3] however, there are also many Syrian Turkmen who are the descendants of earlier Turkish settlers that arrived during the Seljuk (1037-1194) and Mamluk (1250-1517) periods. Today, Turkish-speaking Syrian Turkmen make up the third largest ethnic group in the country, after the Arabs and Kurds respectively;[4][5][6][7][6][8] some estimates indicate that if Arabized Turkmen (i.e
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Semi-direct Democracy
Semi-direct democracy is a type of democracy that combines the mechanisms of direct democracy and representative government. In semi-direct democracy, representatives administer daily governance, but citizens keep the sovereignty, being able to control their governments and laws through different forms of popular action: binding referendum, popular initiative, revocation of mandate, and public consultations. The first two forms—referendums and initiatives—are examples of direct legislation. Modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century. In 1847, the Swiss added the "statute referendum" to their national constitution. They soon discovered that merely having the power to veto Parliament's laws was not enough. In 1891, they added the "constitutional amendment initiative"
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Federated State
A federated state (which may also be referred to as a state, a province, a region, a canton, a governorate, an oblast, an emirate or a country) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.[1] Such states differ from fully sovereign states, in that they do not have full sovereign powers, as the sovereign powers have been divided between the federated states and the central or federal government. Importantly, federated states do not have standing as entities of international law
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Adyghe Language
Adyghe (/ˈædɪɡ/ or /ˌɑːdɪˈɡ/;[3] Adyghe: адыгабзэ, romanized: adygabzæ, [aːdəɣaːbza]),[lacks stress] also known as West Circassian (Adyghe: кӀахыбзэ), is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken by various tribes of the western subgroup of Circassians, the Adyghe people: Abzekh,[4] Bzhedug,[5] Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug,[6] Zhaney and Yegeruqwai, each with its own dialect.[7] The language is referred to by its speakers as Khaxybze or K'axəbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect
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Syriac Language
Syriac (/ˈsɪriæk/; ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ[a] Leššānā Suryāyā), also known as Syrian/Syriac Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic or Classical Syriac,[9][10][11] is a dialect of Middle Aramaic of the Northwest Semitic languages of the Afroasiatic family that is written in the Syriac alphabet, a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet. Having first appeared in the early first century AD in Edessa,[12] classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries,[13] preserved in a large body of Syriac literature
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Raqqa

Raqqa (Arabic: ٱلرَّقَّة‎, ar-Raqqah), also called Raqa, Rakka and ar-Raqqah, is a city in Syria on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 kilometres (99 miles) east of Aleppo. It is located 40 kilometres (25 miles) east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine city and bishopric Callinicum (formerly a Latin and now a Maronite Catholic titular see) was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid. It was also the capital of the Islamic State from 2014 to 2017. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, Raqqa is the sixth largest city in Syria.[2] During the Syrian Civil War, the city was captured in 2013 by the Syrian opposition and then by the Islamic State
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Ayn Issa
Ayn Issa (Arabic: عين عيسى‎, Kurdish: Bozanê[2][3][4][5][6][7][better source needed]) is a town in the Tell Abyad District of Raqqa Governorate in Syria. It is located halfway between the Syria-Turkey border town of Tell Abyad and the regional capital Raqqa. Ayn Issa was the capital of the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria from 2018 until the 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria. In June 2015, Ayn Issa was taken over by the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) militia, Women's Protection Units (YPJ), and the Raqqa Revolutionaries Brigade in the course of their Tell Abyad offensive
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