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Rock And Roll
ROCK AND ROLL (often written as ROCK "> Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland , Ohio in the origins of rock and roll The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage. The _ American Heritage Dictionary _ and the _ Merriam-Webster Dictionary _ both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music . _ Encyclopædia Britannica _, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and later developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music". The phrase "rocking and rolling" originally described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy. Various gospel, blues and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more frequently – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film _ Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round _. In 1942, _Billboard _ magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe
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Rock Music
ROCK MUSIC is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll " in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily on the African-American genres of blues and rhythm and blues , and from country music . Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk , and incorporated influences from jazz , classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar , usually as part of a rock group with electric bass and drums and one or more singers . Typically, rock is song -based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form , but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music , lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock , folk rock , country rock , raga rock , and jazz-rock , many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock , which was influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene
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Rock And Roll (other)
ROCK AND ROLL is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s
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Blues
BLUES is a genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African musical traditions , African-American work songs , spirituals , and folk music . Blues incorporated spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts , chants , and rhymed simple narrative ballads . The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz , rhythm and blues and rock and roll , is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions , of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes (or "worried notes"), usually thirds or fifths flattened in pitch , are also an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove . Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern , consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars. Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative, often relating the troubles experienced in African-American society
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Rhythm And Blues
RHYTHM AND BLUES, often abbreviated as R&B or RNB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans , at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, saxophone, and sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy. The lyrics in this genre of music focus heavily on the themes of triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, freedom, economics, aspirations, and sex. The term _rhythm and blues_ has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s it was frequently applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll , the term "R posters for The Who's residency at the Marquee Club in 1964 contained the slogan, "Maximum R&B". This tangent of RnB is now known as "British rhythm and blues ". By the 1970s, the term _rhythm and blues_ changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk
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Gospel Music
GOSPEL MUSIC is a music genre in Christian music . The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel
Gospel
music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, and as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel
Gospel
music usually has dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) with Christian lyrics. Gospel
Gospel
music can be traced to the early 17th century, with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella . The first published use of the term " Gospel
Gospel
Song" probably appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root , Philip Bliss
Philip Bliss
, Charles H. Gabriel , William Howard Doane
William Howard Doane
, and Fanny Crosby
Fanny Crosby
. Gospel
Gospel
music publishing houses emerged. The advent of radio in the 1920s greatly increased the audience for gospel music
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Boogie-woogie
BOOGIE-WOOGIE is a musical genre that became popular during the late 1920s, but developed in African American
African American
communities in the 1870s. It was eventually extended from piano, to piano duo and trio, guitar , big band , country and western music , and gospel . While the blues traditionally expresses a variety of emotions, boogie-woogie is mainly associated with dancing . The lyrics of one of the earliest hits, "Pinetop\'s Boogie
Boogie
Woogie ", consist entirely of instructions to dancers: Now, when I tell you to hold yourself, don't you move a peg. And when I tell you to get it, I want you to Boogie
Boogie
Woogie! It is characterized by a regular left-hand bass figure , which is transposed following the chord changes. Boogie-woogie
Boogie-woogie
is not strictly a solo piano style; it can accompany singers and be featured in orchestras and small combos. It is sometimes called "eight to the bar ", as much of it is written in common time (4 4) time using eighth notes (quavers ) (see time signature ). The chord progressions are typically based on I – IV – V – I (with many formal variations of it, such as I/I – IV/IV – V/I, as well as chords that lead into these ones). For the most part, boogie-woogie tunes are twelve-bar blues , although the style has been applied to popular songs such as "Swanee River " and hymns such as "Just a Closer Walk with Thee "
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Country Music
COUNTRY MUSIC (frequently referred to as just COUNTRY) is a musical genre that originated in the Southern United States
Southern United States
in the 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk music (especially Appalachian folk music ) and blues . Country music
Country music
often consists of ballads and dance tunes with generally simple forms and harmonies accompanied by mostly string instruments such as banjos , electric and acoustic guitars , steel guitars (such as pedal steels and dobros ), and fiddles as well as harmonicas . Blues
Blues
modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history . According to Lindsey Starnes, the term _country music_ gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term _hillbilly music_; it came to encompass Western music , which evolved parallel to hillbilly music from similar roots, in the mid-20th century. In 2009 country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, and second most popular in the morning commute in the United States. The term _country music_ is used today to describe many styles and subgenres. The origins of country music are the folk music of working-class Americans , who blended popular songs, Irish and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, and cowboy songs, and various musical traditions from European immigrant communities
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Electric Blues
ELECTRIC BLUES refers to any type of blues music distinguished by the use of electric amplification for musical instruments. The guitar was the first instrument to be popularly amplified and used by early pioneers T-Bone Walker in the late 1930s and John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters in the 1940s. Their styles developed into West Coast blues , Detroit blues
Detroit blues
, and post- World War II
World War II
Chicago blues
Chicago blues
, which differed from earlier, predominantly acoustic-style blues. By the early 1950s, Little Walter was a featured soloist on blues harmonica or blues harp using a small hand-held microphone fed into a guitar amplifier. Although it took a little longer, the electric bass guitar gradually replaced the stand-up bass by the early 1960s. Electric organs and especially keyboards later became widely used in electric blues. CONTENTS * 1 Early regional styles * 2 British electric styles * 3 Blues
Blues
rock * 4 Electric Texas blues * 5 Contemporary electric blues * 6 See also * 7 Notes EARLY REGIONAL STYLES Main articles: West Coast blues , Chicago blues
Chicago blues
, Memphis blues
Memphis blues
, and New Orleans blues The blues, like jazz , probably began to be amplified in the late 1930s
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Jump Blues
JUMP BLUES is an up-tempo style of blues , usually played by small groups and featuring saxophone or brass instruments . It was popular in the 1940s and was a precursor of rhythm and blues and rock and roll . Appreciation of jump blues was renewed in the 1990s as part of the swing revival . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Revival * 3 Notable artists * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ORIGINS Louis Jordan in 1946 Jump blues evolved from the music of big bands such as those of Lionel Hampton and Lucky Millinder . These bands of the early 1940s produced musicians such as Louis Jordan , Jack McVea , Earl Bostic , and Arnett Cobb . Blues and jazz were part of the same musical world, with many accomplished musicians straddling both genres. Jump bands such as the Tympany Five , which came into being at the same time as the boogie-woogie revival, achieved maximum effect with an eight-to-the-bar boogie-woogie style. Lionel Hampton recorded the stomping big-band blues song "Flying Home " in 1942. Featuring a choked, screaming tenor sax performance by Illinois Jacquet , the song was a hit in the "race " category
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Chicago Blues
The CHICAGO BLUES is a form of blues music indigenous to Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois
Illinois
. Chicago
Chicago
blues is a type of urban blues . Urban blues evolved from classic blues following the Great Migration , or the Great Northern Drive, which was both forced and voluntary at times, of African Americans from the southern United States to the industrial cities of the north, such as Chicago. Muddy Waters directly joined that migration, like many others, such as in Florida, avoiding the more harshly southern Jim Crow laws. Bruce Iglauer, founder of Alligator Records stated that, " Chicago
Chicago
blues is the music of the industrial city, and has an industrial sense about it." Additionally, recognizing the shift in blues, Chicago
Chicago
blues singer and guitarist Kevin Moore expressed the blues transition stating, "You have to put some new life into it, new blood, new perspectives. You can't keep talking about mules, workin' on the levee." Chicago
Chicago
blues was heavily influenced by Mississippi bluesmen who traveled to Chicago
Chicago
in the early 1940s
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Swing Music
SWING MUSIC, or simply SWING, is a form of popular music developed in the United States that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s. The name swing came from the 'swing feel' where the emphasis is on the off–beat or weaker pulse in the music. Swing bands usually featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the arrangement. The danceable swing style of big bands and bandleaders such as Benny Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, a period known as the swing era . The verb "to swing " is also used as a term of praise for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Notable musicians of the swing era include Louis Armstrong , Duke Ellington , Count Basie , Benny Goodman , Artie Shaw , Glenn Miller , Woody Herman , and Cab Calloway . Swing has roots in the 1920s as larger dance music ensembles began using new styles of written arrangements. A typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely tied wind and brass. The most common style consisted of theme choruses and choruses with improvised solos within the framework of his bandmates playing support. Swing music began to decline in popularity during World War II because of several factors. Swing influenced the later styles of traditional pop music , jump blues , and bebop jazz
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Folk Music
FOLK MUSIC includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival . The term originated in the 19th century, but is often applied to music older than that. Some types of folk music are also called world music . TRADITIONAL FOLK MUSIC has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally , music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles . Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has typically not been applied to the new music created during those revivals. This type of folk music also includes fusion genres such as folk rock , folk metal , electric folk , and others. While contemporary folk music is a genre generally distinct from traditional folk music, in English it shares the same name, and it often shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music. Even individual songs may be a blend of the two
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Western Swing
WESTERN SWING MUSIC is a subgenre of American country music that originated in the late 1920s in the West and South among the region's Western string bands . It is dance music, often with an up-tempo beat, which attracted huge crowds to dance halls and clubs in Texas , Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and California
California
during the 1930s and 1940s until a federal war-time nightclub tax in 1944 contributed to the genre's decline. The movement was an outgrowth of jazz , and similarities with gypsy jazz are often noted. The music is an amalgamation of rural , cowboy , polka , folk , Dixieland jazz and blues blended with swing ; and played by a hot string band often augmented with drums, saxophones, pianos and, notably, the steel guitar . The electrically amplified stringed instruments, especially the steel guitar, give the music a distinctive sound. Later incarnations have also included overtones of bebop . Western swing
Western swing
differs in several ways from the music played by the nationally popular horn-driven big swing bands of the same era. In Western bands, even fully orchestrated bands, vocals, and other instruments followed the fiddle's lead. Additionally, although popular horn bands tended to arrange and score their music, most Western bands improvised freely, either by soloists or collectively
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Electric Guitar
An ELECTRIC GUITAR is a fretted stringed instrument with a neck and body that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitarist strums , plucks or fingerpicks the strings. It is sensed by a pickup , most commonly by a magnetic pickup that uses the principle of direct electromagnetic induction . The signal generated by an electric guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker , so it is plugged into a guitar amplifier before being sent to a loudspeaker, which makes a sound loud enough to hear. The output of an electric guitar is an electric signal, and the signal can easily be altered by electronic circuits to add "color" to the sound or change the sound. Often the signal is modified using effects such as reverb and distortion and "overdrive" , with the growling sound of the latter being a key element of the sound of the electric guitar as it is used in blues and rock music . Invented in 1931, the amplified electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitarists , who sought to be able to do single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record included Les Paul , Lonnie Johnson , Sister Rosetta Tharpe , T-Bone Walker , and Charlie Christian
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Piano
The PIANO is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard , which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word _piano_ is a shortened form of _pianoforte_, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from _gravicembalo col piano e forte_ and _fortepiano _. The Italian musical terms _piano_ and _forte_ indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context referring to the variations in volume (i.e., loudness) produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure